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'TRASLACIŇN' OF THE BLACK NAZARENE (TRANSFER OF SANTO CRISTO JESUS NAZARENO)
(Pope Innocent X granted to recognition to the lay Confraternity of Santo Cristo Jesus Nazareno in 1650 for the promotion of devotion to Jesus under this image. It was housed in several churches near Manila in the early decades, reaching the Quiapo church in 1787 where it has been ever since.)
JANUARY 9 -The Black Nazarene (Spanish: El Nazareno Negro, Nuestro Padre Jesús Nazareno, Tagalog or Filipino: Poóng Itím na Nazareno, Hesus Nazareno is a life-sized statue of dark skinned, cross bearing Jesus Christ enshrined in the Minor Basilica of the Black Nazarene located at the Quiapo district in the City of Manila, Philippines. The Black Nazarene was carved from a dark wood around the 16th century in Mexico by a group of Spanish Augustinian Recollect friars, and then transported to Philippines in 1606. It depicts Jesus en route to his crucifixion. Pope Innocent X granted to recognition to the lay Confraternity of Santo Cristo Jesus Nazareno in 1650 for the promotion of devotion to Jesus under this image. It was housed in several churches near Manila in the early decades, reaching the Quiapo church in 1787 where it has been ever since. The icon is renowned in the Philippines, is considered miraculous by many Filipino Catholics who believe that just touching it cures diseases. It attracts homage by numerous devotees and major processions every year. Three times a year, the statue (in recent years a replica) is brought out of its shrine for public veneration on New Year's Day (the first day of its novena); Good Friday; and January 9. READ MORE...
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The Quiapo Black Nazarene
MANILA, JANUARY 9, 2017 (WIKIPEDIA) The Black Nazarene (Spanish: El Nazareno Negro, Nuestro Padre Jesús Nazareno, Tagalog or Filipino: Poóng Itím na Nazareno, Hesus Nazareno is a life-sized statue of dark skinned, cross bearing Jesus Christ enshrined in the Minor Basilica of the Black Nazarene located at the Quiapo district in the City of Manila, Philippines.
The Black Nazarene was carved from a dark wood around the 16th century in Mexico by a group of Spanish Augustinian Recollect friars, and then transported to Philippines in 1606. It depicts Jesus en route to his crucifixion.
Pope Innocent X granted to recognition to the lay Confraternity of Santo Cristo Jesus Nazareno in 1650 for the promotion of devotion to Jesus under this image. It was housed in several churches near Manila in the early decades, reaching the Quiapo church in 1787 where it has been ever since.
The icon is renowned in the Philippines, is considered miraculous by many Filipino Catholics who believe that just touching it cures diseases. It attracts homage by numerous devotees and major processions every year.
Three times a year, the statue (in recent years a replica) is brought out of its shrine for public veneration on New Year's Day (the first day of its novena); Good Friday; and January 9.
The procession every January 9 reenacts the image's Traslación (literally, "transfer") in 1787, or solemn transfer to the Minor Basilica from its original location in what is now Rizal Park. The Traslación procession on January 9 is the largest of the three, drawing millions of devotees thronging to touch and get blessings from the icon, and lasting anywhere from 14 to 20 hours.
A similar statue of Jesus Christ called Christo Negro and devotional worship practices are found in Central America, in Portobelo, Panama.
The Black Nazarene statue is venerated by Filipino devotees every Friday, and along with Santo Nińo (Child Jesus) is the most popular object of devotion in the Philippines.
The statue derives its name from "Nazarene", which is a title of Christ identifying him as being of Nazareth in Galilee, and from its very dark complexion uncommon amongst Philippine depictions of Jesus.
The importance of the holy icon led to the Traslación procession through the streets of Manila. The event is taken from the Spanish term for translation referring to "passage" or "movement".
The image's wooden base is referred to as the peana, while its carriage or carroza used in processions is specifically called the Ándas (from the Spanish andar, "to move forward"). While the term andas in the country is otherwise applied to shoulder-borne palanquins for religious images, the carriage is still called one as the icon was processed on such a palanquin until the late 20th century.
The image enshrined above the high altar of the Minor Basilica of the Black Nazarene, Manila. The statue was made by an anonymous Mexican sculptor, and the image arrived in Manila via galleon from Acapulco, Mexico, sometime in the mid-1600s. Traditional accounts attribute the colour to votive candles burning before the image, although the most widespread belief is that it was charred by a fire on the galleon that brought it from Mexico.
Basilika ng Nazareno at night Quiapo Church, officially known as Minor Basilica of the Black Nazarene, is a Roman Catholic church located in the District of Quiapo, Manila, in the Philippines. The church was painted cream after the original Mexican Baroque edifice was burned down in 1928. It is expanded to its current form in 1984 for accommodation of thousands of devotees. Also known as St. John the Baptist Parish, the church at present belongs to the Archdiocese of Manila. GOOGLED IMAGE
Monsignor Sabino A. Vengco, Jr. from Loyola School of Theology meanwhile noted that the image was not charred but in fact dark through to its core, as it was carved from mesquite wood. Vengco based this claim on personal research in Mexico, where he said the wood was a popular medium in the period the statue was carved, and likened it to Our Lady of Antipolo, of similar provenance and appearance.
The older and more popular copy belonging to the Recollects was destroyed in the Second World War during the Liberation of Manila in 1945. The surviving image has been enshrined in the Minor Basilica for centuries, withstanding several fires, earthquakes and war.
A common misconception among devotees is that this copy is the same as the lost image from the Church of Saint Nicholas of Tolentino, which belonged to the Recollects in what is now Rizal Park outside Intramuros. The Quiapo image was available for physical veneration by devotees, while the Recollects always kept their copy above the retablo mayor (high altar) away from crowds, bringing it out only on Palm Sunday for a procession.
The present-day statue enshrined in Quiapo Church is in fact a composite of the original head and a replica sculpted by renowned Filipino santero (saint-maker) Gener Maglaqui, as commissioned by the Archdiocese of Manila. The second composite statue, comprising the original body and the head of the Maglaqui replica, is normally stored in a different location and brought out only for the three major annual processions. This arrangement began in the 1990s because of security concerns for the image as well as to prevent further damage to it; up to that point, the original image in its entirety was processed.
The original wooden image itself has lost several fingers over the years. The head wears a braided wig made of dyed abaca, along with a golden crown of thorns. Attached to the crown of the statue's head are the traditional "Tres Potencias" ("three powers") halo, symbolizing the three powers of the Holy Trinity. These three rayos ("rays") are used exclusively for Christ in traditional Hispanic iconography, and are an angular variant of the cruciform halo.
The image is dressed in a heavy velvet tunic of maroon, embroidered with floral or plant emblems in gold thread, and accented with lace trimmings on the collar and cuffs.
Around its waist, a gold-plated metal belt embossed with the word "NAZARENO", while a golden chain and ball looped around the neck and held in its left hand represents the Scourging. The statue's vestments are changed in the Pabihis ("dressing") ritual, which is performed by a priest and devotees either inside the basilica or in Plaza Miranda five times a year in preparation for major religious occasions, either way, it is attended by the public.
The barefooted statue is shown in a genuflecting posture, symbolising the agony and the weight of the cross with the pain Christ endured during his Passion. The statue bears a large, black cross of wood decorated with gilded brass caps on its ends.
Marshals in yellow lift the Black Nazarene onto its ándas at the start of the Traslación. The peana or base of the image can be seen under the hem of its robes.
Every January 9, the Traslación of the Black Nazarene makes its way along the streets of the Quiapo district, with attendees reaching up to 12 million.
In recent years, the processional route was altered due to a rise in vehicular and stampede accidents, to afford other neighbourhoods off the traditional route a chance to participate, and because of structural deficiencies in bridges along the route. It is normally only a school holiday for the schools along or near the path of the procession, starting 2014, for the first time in the city's history, Mayor of Manila Joseph Estrada declared a special non-working holiday due to the impassability of some thoroughfares and projected congestion in others.
As per custom, the statue of the Nazarene leaves the Minor Basilica a day or two before, either in a public fashion or clandestinely. Since 2016, the procession begins at around 05:30 PHT (GMT+8) after a Solemn Midnight Mass (usually presided by the Rector Priest of the Minor Basilica of the Black Nazarene but the Archbishop of Manila give a homily for the feast) and a Morning Prayer of Liturgy of the Hours at the Quirino Grandstand in Rizal Park, near where the image was first enshrined, and ends in Quiapo early the following morning or at late night the same day, depending on how long the image is traveling.
Some participants choose to wait for the image inside the Minor Basilica to greet it, while most devotees walk throughout the whole processional route. All devotees wear maroon and yellow like the image's garb, and they walk barefoot as both penance and in emulation of Jesus on his way to Golgotha. Authorities estimate that over 500,000 devotees strode barefoot in the 2013 procession, which was attended by 9 million people.
Attendees include families of devotees, tourists, and members of devotees' associations throughout the country (marked by their long gonfalone, usually coloured maroon or white and embroidered in gold, all with an icon of the image and the association name in gold or white surrounding it) and overseas.
Devotees around the "Ándas" of the Black Nazarene
ANDAS OF THE BLACK NAZARENE FLICKR PHOTO
The Black Nazarene is borne in procession on its carriage called the Ándas, and traditionally only men were permitted to be namámasán ("bearers", i.e. devotees pulling the Ándas by its two large ropes), but in recent years female devotees have been allowed to participate.
It is believed that the Kanang Balikat, or right shoulder-side of the rope, is the most sacred side since it is believed to have been where Jesus bore the cross.
Marshals from the Minor Basilica, known as the Hijos del Nazareno, form an honour guard for the Black Nazarene, and are the only people allowed to ride with it in the Ándas for the duration of the Traslación.
The Hijos are distinguishable by their yellow and white shirts from maroon-clad devotees, and their primary jobs are to protect the image from possible damage as well as direct the namámasán at the front and the crowd behind through hand gestures, voice commands (either directly or through a megaphone, especially at the front of the image) and whistle signals.
They also help devotees clamber up the Ándas that they might briefly touch the image or its cross, and wipe towels and handkerchiefs tossed at them on parts of the image.
The wiping of cloth on the statue, which is also done during the Pahalík ("kissing") vigil preceding the Traslación, follows the folk belief that a miraculous object's powers (specifically its curative abilities) "rub off" on cloth articles. This transfer of sanctity through contact descends from the custom of ex brandea (cloth wiped on the bodies or tombs of the Twelve Apostles), itself part of the wider category of Third-class relics.
The Traslación is also notorious for the casualties that result from the jostling and congestion of the crowds pulling the Ándas. The injuries and even deaths of devotees are brought upon by one or a combination of heat, fatigue, or being trampled upon by other devotees.
The 2012 Traslación is the longest in the image's recorded history as it ended after 22 hours, arriving at Plaza Miranda around 05:15 PHT on January 10.
The procession took longer than usual since the wheels of the Ándas broke early on at a point near Manila Hotel, and the rope broke near Liwasang Bonifacio. There were also reports of groups of devotees diverting the image from the previously decided route in order to pass by business establishments outside of the traditional route. This illicit act was done to allow homes and businesses off the planned route to receive the good luck and blessings of the image.
Revival of the Dungaw
Dungaw at the Feast of the Black Nazarene 2016
On January 9, 2014, the old tradition of the Dungaw (a Tagalog calque of its Spanish name Mirata, "to see" or "to view") was revived and reincorporated into the Traslación after old documents attesting to its practise were re-discovered. The custom involves the Black Nazarene being made to stop briefly at Plaza del Carmen along the southwest flank of the neo-gothic Basilica Minore de San Sebastián.
After the recitation of the rosary by the congregation inside the steel basilica and as the bells in the church's twin spires peal, the resident Recollect priests remove the statue of Our Lady of Mount Carmel from its shrine in the retablo mayor (high altar).
The image, which was given to the Recollects in 1617 by a Carmelite nunnery in Mexico City, is then brought to a high platform at the southwest face of the church, and lifted up by several priests to "see" and "meet" the Black Nazarene.
The moment is accompanied by relative silence and fervent prayer on the part of devotees, and shortly thereafter, the priests slowly turn the Virgin's statue so that it "watches" the Black Nazarene and its procession depart the vicinity of Plaza del Carmen.
Theologically, the rite reflects the fourth of the Traditional Stations of the Cross, where Christ meets his mother, the Virgin Mary, as he was on his way to be crucified.
Pope Innocent X approved veneration of the statue in 1650 as a sacramental, and authorised the establishment of the Confraternity of the Most Holy Jesus Nazarene (Spanish: Cofradía de Nuestro Santo Jesús Nazareno).
For a majority of the Spanish Era, Filipinos were barred from taking Holy Orders, while confraternities were groups of religious laymen and thus an open option. Pope Pius VII gave the statue his Apostolic Blessing in 1880, which granted plenary indulgence to those who piously pray before it.
A replica of the Black Nazarene at Plaza Miranda during a Traslación.
Religious veneration of the Black Nazarene is rooted among Filipinos who identify themselves with the passion and suffering of Christ which the statue depicts. Many devotees of the Black Nazarene relate their poverty and daily struggles to the Passion of Christ as represented by the image.
While the actual patron saint of the Minor Basilica is Saint John the Baptist (and thus the church's actual parochial feast day being 24 June), the Black Nazarene and its Traslación are more popular. At the end of each Mass offered in the Minor Basilica, devotees pay homage to the image by clapping their hands.
The Friday of each week in the year (except Good Friday) is colloquially known as "Quiapo Day" since the novena in the image's honour is held on this day nationwide. As with "Baclaran Day" (which is ascribed to Wednesdays), commuters associate these two days with heavy traffic in the city due to the influx of devotees to each shrine.
In addition to the novena, Traslación, Pahalík and the Pabihis, the Pasindi ("lighting") or lighting of devotional candles in prayer is another popular devotion, as is the creeping or walking on the knees down the nave of Quiapo Church towards the altar enshrining the image.
The Nazarene Catholic School (formerly known as the Quiapo Parochial School) reflects the devotion of decision-makers of the school to the Black Nazarene. The school's official newsletter is likewise named "The Nazarene" with the pupils attributed as being "Nazareneans."
The largest procession in reverence for the Black Nazarene idol is the January 9 Traslación procession every year, attracting millions of Catholic devotees, who throng to touch or get their towel touched by the statue carriers and the statue and thereby get a blessing from the idol.
Beyond the procession, every Friday, the Black Nazarene statue is venerated by Filipino devotees. It is, along with Santo Nińo (Child Jesus), is the most popular object of devotion in the Philippines.
The hymn Nuestro Padre Jesús Nazareno was composed by Lucio San Pedro to honour the statue. It is used by the Minor Basilica as the official anthem of the devotion and its associated rites.
Nuestro Padre Jesús Nazareno, Sinasambá Ka namin,
Pinipintuhň Ka namin Aral Mo ang aming buhay at Kaligtasan.
Nuestro Padre Jesús Nazareno, Iligtás Mo kami sa Kasalanan!
Ang Krus Mong kinamatayán ay Sagisag ng aming Kaligtasan.
|| Nuestro Padre Jesús Nazareno, Dinarangál Ka namin!
Nuestro Padre Jesús Nazareno, Nilul'walhatě Ka namin! ||
Literal English translation
Our Father, Jesus the Nazarene We worship Thee
We admire Thee Thy teachings are our life and Salvation.
Our Father Jesus Nazarene, Save us from sin!
The Cross Thou hadst died upon is Emblem of our Salvation.
|| Our Father, Jesus the Nazarene, We honour Thee!
Our Father Jesus Nazarene, We glorify Thee! ||
Waray Waray lyrics
Nuestro Padre Jesús Nazareno, Ginsisingba ka namon,
Gindadayaw ka namon, Lagda mo am kinabuhi Ug katalwasan
Nuestro Padre Jesús Nazareno, Talwasa kami sa kasal-anan
An krus nga imo kinamatyan an Tigaman san amon katalwasan!
|| Nuestro Padre Jesús Nazareno, Ginpapasangyaw ka namon
Nuestro Padre Jesús Nazareno, Ginhihimaya ka namon! ||
Quiapo Church when not so busy. The current rector is Rev. Msgr. Jose Clemente Ignacio, former Chancellor and Oeconomus of the Archdiocese of Manila.
Similar processions replicating the Traslación are also held on 9 January in other parts of the country.
The largest of these is held in Cagayan de Oro City, which uses an official replica of the image given by the Minor Basilica in 2009.
Filipinos overseas have brought the tradition of a procession and Mass honouring of the Black Nazarene statue to countries such as Australia and the United States. As in Quiapo, a copy of the image is paraded through the streets or within the parish bounds, with devotees reciting prayers in its wake.
In September 2012, a replica of the Black Nazarene was canonically enshrined at Saint Catherine of Siena Roman Catholic Parish in Reseda, California, United States.
In March 4, 2014, a replica of the Black Nazarene from Quiapo Church arrived at the Old Chapel of St. Rock the Healer Mission Center, Bishop's Compound, Brgy. Cawayan, Catarman, Northern Samar. Since then, many devotees across Northern Samar came to venerate the sacred image, especially during Fridays. At that time, the said mission center were constructing a bigger church.
On January 9, 2015, the first Translacion was held, in solidarity with the Quiapo Church. It was when the sacred image was transferred from the old church to the new and unfinished church building. Crowds not only from Northern Samar but all over the island attended.
In September 12, 2016, the newly constructed church was blessed, dedicated and consecrated by His Eminence Luis Antonio Cardinal Tagle. The event was concelebrated by the priests from Quiapo Church, Felomino G. Bactol (Bishop of Naval), Bishop Emeritus Anghel Hobayan (the first bishop of the Diocese of Catarman), Bishop Emmanuel C. Trance (present Bishop of Catarman), Mission Center's first administrator Rev. Fr. Alan Abalon and Mission Center's second administrator and rector Rev. Fr. Rico M. Manook. The event was attended by many religious people from different dioceses in Eastern Visayas. Also, during this event, the St. Rock the Healer Mission Center was elevated as the Diocesan Shrine of Nuestro Padre Jesus Nazareno, making it the first church in the Visayas to be declared a shrine in honor of this image.
According to Jaime Laya, the devotional worship of Black Nazarene of Quiapo is idolatry, but he states it may be a continuation of possibly pre-Christian local ritual practices.
Elizabeth Pisares also states that this is idolatry, and suggests its link with the social disparities among the Filipino. In contrast, according to the rector Monsignor of Quiapo, Jose Clemente Ignacio, the procession and devotion is not idolatry, rather it is a reflection of "Filipino trait to want to wipe, touch, kiss, or embrace sacred objects if possible", and it is just a belief in "the presence of the Divine in sacred objects and places".
According to Mariano Barbato, the debate over the icon is centred on the questions of what constitutes idolatry, when an icon becomes a false god, and what makes the procession ritual idolatrous.
Travel within the City of Manila during the Traslación every January 9 might be difficult as heavy traffic is expected. Most jeepneys use alternate routes for the day to avoid the procession, thus creating additional travel time. Some public transport systems such as the LRT-1, LRT-2, and MRT-3 provide free rides to devotees, who are easily identifiable as barefoot and dressed in maroon.
Traffic rerouting is implemented on the feast and the day before, and is enforced by the Manila Police District with reinforcements from the Philippine National Police and, since 2014, the Armed Forces of the Philippines.
The Philippine Coast Guard guards stretches of the Pasig River along the Jones, Quezon and MacArthur bridges to ensure the safe passage of the procession.
A similar scenario may be experienced by tourists and travellers in Cagayan de Oro and in Catarman, Northern Samar during the yearly processions of the image.
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