WHAT STEVE JOBS TAUGHT US ABOUT FAILURE: JOBS' LIFE & DEATH
 

MSNBC.COM, OCTOBER 7, 2011 (PHNO) By Allison Linn - Photo by David Paul Morris/Getty Images - College dropout. Fired tech executive. Unsuccessful businessman.

Steve Jobs will always be best known for his incredible success in guiding Apple Inc. and transforming the entire consumer computer and phone industry. But he’ll also be remembered fondly as the poster child for how making mistakes — and even failing — can sometimes end up being the best thing that ever happen to you.

Jobs passed away Wednesday after suffering for years from health problems, likely stemming from a battle with cancer.

His death came after he was forced to step down from his position as chief executive of Apple because of the ongoing health problems. He stayed on as chairman of the company.

By the time he turned the reins of the company over to his second in command, Tim Cook, Jobs had become one of the business world’s greatest comeback kids.

The company he founded, was fired from, and then returned to has gone from also-ran to technology industry leader. Under Jobs’ intensely detail-oriented leadership, Apple created several iconic products, including the iPod, iPhone and iPad, which have changed the face of consumer technology forever.

Apple also is now one of the most valuable companies in America by market capitalization. Jobs was one of the richest men in the world.

He wasn’t always in the enviable position of being both Wall Street and Silicon Valley’s darling.

College dropout Like Microsoft co-founder Bill Gates and Facebook Chief Executive Mark Zuckerberg, Jobs never graduated from college.

In fact, he only made it through about six months at Reed College, a highly selective liberal arts school in Oregon, before dropping out because he thought it was too expensive for his middle-class parents.

In a commencement speech at Stanford University in 2005, Jobs recalled sleeping on friends’ floors and walking across town to the Hare Krishna temple for free meals. But he also recalled how dropping out left him with time to take a calligraphy class, which later would inform the typography aesthetic of the first Mac.

“If I had never dropped out, I would have never dropped in on this calligraphy class, and personal computers might not have the wonderful typography that they do,” he said in the commencement speech.

Fired executive Career coaches and leadership gurus will often say that getting fired can be the best thing that ever happened to you, but that can be hard to believe if you’re the one being shown the door.

That’s especially true when you consider the case of Jobs. He wasn’t just fired. He was dumped by Apple, his baby, the company he had co-founded in his garage with pal Steve Wozniak.

The firing came after a power struggle in which the board of directors sided with John Sculley, a former Pepsi executive had been brought in to run the company.

In the Stanford commencement speech, Jobs recalled the devastating public humiliation of being ousted, and conceded that he even considered running away from Silicon Valley. Only later did he see how the blow helped him.

“I didn't see it then, but it turned out that getting fired from Apple was the best thing that could have ever happened to me. The heaviness of being successful was replaced by the lightness of being a beginner again, less sure about everything. It freed me to enter one of the most creative periods of my life,” Jobs said in the Stanford commencement speech.

Instead of running away, during his time away from Apple Jobs bought the animation studio Pixar and started the computer company NeXT.

Pixar revolutionized animated moviemaking with releases such as “Toy Story,” “Finding Nemo” and “Cars.” It later was sold to The Walt Disney Co.

Unsuccessful businessman NeXT wasn’t quite as successful as Pixar. Jobs’ dream of a pricey, beautiful computer, dubbed the Cube because of its shape, never found its niche. The company’s software also wasn’t widely adopted.

In an eviscerating 1991 article, Forbes said Jobs “has made fundamentally wrong decisions that could well doom the venture.”

“None of this is to deny Jobs the credit due him for what he did in cofounding Apple. But there are very few miracle workers in the business world, and it is now clear that Steve Jobs is not one of them,” author Julia Pitta wrote in the Forbes piece.

Still, even NeXT ended up being an important stepping stone for Jobs. In 1997, a struggling Apple bought NeXT and incorporated some of the company’s technology into Apple products. The deal also brought Jobs back to the company, and he eventually took over as CEO.

When the prodigal Jobs returned to Apple, many were openly speculating whether Apple was beyond salvation, as the company wallowed in financial losses and seemed to have lost direction.

By now, it’s safe to say Jobs proved them wrong.

The Jobs legacy: Ease, elegance in technology By Suzanne Choney, msnbc.com, Updated: October 5, 2011

Steve Jobs will be remembered as a titan of business, of course. But for those of us who struggled decades ago to learn lines of code in order to create something as elementary as a letter on a computer, Jobs will forever be associated with making modern computing simple, seamless and satisfying.

The iconic co-founder of Apple, along with Steve Wozniak, helped create a funny-looking computer named the Apple I, then II, in the 1970s that became synonymous with style and ease of use, as did dozens of products that would follow over the years, including the Macintosh, iMac, iPod, iPhone and iPad. With the creation of the iTunes Store and 99-cent song downloads in 2003, he upended the digital music business at a time when it could have easily tipped in favor of piracy, a direction it was headed.

By 2008, the iTunes Store was the leading source for consumers to buy digital music, and it spawned other online-buying websites that tried to follow its simple-to-use model. It also led to Apple's creation of the App Store in 2008 for buying programs and software for the iPhone, and this year, the Mac itself.

The wireless world was completely revolutionized by the release of the iPhone in 2007. At that time, the word "smartphone" was largely equated with BlackBerrys, the standard bearer for the business class. Jobs saw the iPhone as a mobile computing device, and not just a phone, for everyone — something his competitors did not grasp at that time.

'I'll always stay connected with Apple' Jobs' failing health — he was diagnosed with rare form of pancreatic cancer in 2004, and had a liver transplant in 2009 — was obvious to all who saw photos of the world's most famous CEO in recent years in his trademark blue jeans and black turtleneck.

Despite taking a leave of absence from Apple earlier this year, he did make a few public appearances to unveil new products — still the showman that he was known to be, with his trademark, "And... one more thing" to deliver the big reveal, whether it was a new Mac or iPhone.

But at each of his subsequent public appearances, he seemed a little more frail and a little less energetic than the time before, the turtlenecks looser, the blue jeans baggier.

Apple fans and followers were devastated by his letter of resignation Aug. 24, in which he wrote: "I have always said if there ever came a day when I could no longer meet my duties and expectations as Apple's CEO, I would be the first to let you know. Unfortunately, that day has come."

It was an ominous sign from the man who said, in 1985, "I’ll always stay connected with Apple. I hope that throughout my life I’ll sort of have the thread of my life and the thread of Apple weave in and out of each other, like a tapestry."

But the threads of the tapestry were fraying. Jobs asked in his letter of resignation to remain as chairman of Apple's board, holding out, as he did so defiantly about many things — products, software, design, marketing — until the end.

Some had hoped Jobs would even make an appearance at Tuesday's unveiling of the new iPhone, nearly six weeks after his resignation. But he did not.

A telling speech The year after his cancer diagnosis, when Jobs was 50, he gave the commencement address to the 2005 graduating class of Stanford University. It's an oft-quoted speech because it was such a personal one.

Jobs the showman was quite the opposite when it came to family matters. But in the speech, he shared his thoughts about many personal things, including his own life — and death.

"No one wants to die," he said. "Even people who want to go to heaven don't want to die to get there. And yet death is the destination we all share. No one has ever escaped it. And that is as it should be, because Death is very likely the single best invention of Life. It is Life's change agent. It clears out the old to make way for the new. Right now the new is you, but someday not too long from now, you will gradually become the old and be cleared away. Sorry to be so dramatic, but it is quite true."

That was typical Jobs: Dramatic and yet no-nonsense all in the same breath.

"This stuff doesn’t change the world. It really doesn’t," he said about technology in a Wired magazine interview, eight years before he was diagnosed with cancer.

"I’m sorry, it’s true. Having children really changes your view on these things. We’re born, we live for a brief instant, and we die. It’s been happening for a long time. Technology is not changing it much — if at all."

Related: Apple-cofounder Steve Jobs dies at 56

But Jobs changed technology and how the everyday person used it.

"His impact on the world of technology and American business can not be underestimated," said Tim Bajarin, a technology consultant who attended the Apple shareholders’ meeting in January 1984, where the first Macintosh was unveiled.

"His simple vision of creating products that he would want — ones that were elegant and easy to use, is what drove him and Apple to spectacular success."

In a 1985 interview with Playboy, not long after the first Macintosh came out, Jobs said, "We think the Mac will sell zillions, but we didn’t build the Mac for anybody else. We built it for ourselves. We were the group of people who were going to judge whether it was great or not. We weren’t going to go out and do market research. We just wanted to build the best thing we could build."

Telling, too, were his remarks about the quality of the build of the Mac, which was — and still is — pricier than the average computer.

"When you’re a carpenter making a beautiful chest of drawers, you’re not going to use a piece of plywood on the back, even though it faces the wall and nobody will ever see it," he said in the interview. "You’ll know it’s there, so you’re going to use a beautiful piece of wood on the back. For you to sleep well at night, the aesthetic, the quality, has to be carried all the way through."

'He basically went on his gut' Ken Auletta, in a recent interview with CNBC, likened Jobs' legacy to that of inventor and scientist Thomas Edison's a century ago.

While Jobs wasn't a scientist or inventor, he said, Jobs "invented and popularized and conceived products that all of us use, and have changed not only all of our lives, but the lives of many businesses that he's disrupted."

Related: Stars react to the news of Steve Jobs' death

Like Edison, Jobs "was a great businessman, and that's unusual to have that kind of combination," said Auletta, a long-time technology and business writer and author, and columnist for The New Yorker.

And he took a path that is anathema to most modern business execs today, Auletta said: He "never did market research — he basically went on his gut ... because he understood that people couldn't know what they would like when they had never seen it before."

Indeed, the most recent example of that was the iPad. A year before Jobs announced it in January 2010, there were plenty news stories about the then-unnamed tablet that Apple was working on, and in fact had started working on before the iPhone.

Many analysts and commentators dismissed it as the kind of Jobsian product that would go the way of the infamous Mac Cube computer or hockey puck mouse, but even faster because there was no need for a tablet the way that Jobs envisioned it.

Even more ridicule followed when it was named the iPad. But Jobs, and Apple, had the last laugh. Since its release in April 2010, nearly 30 million iPads have been sold. Competitors have been churning out their own versions non-stop; none of them can touch the iPad in terms of success.

In large part, that's because no matter what Apple's tablet is called, it is one of the easiest devices to use — and it has the force of the App Store, with more than 140,000 programs for the iPad alone, behind it. No competitor has yet to match that.

The iPhone has more than 500,000 apps; Google's Android phones — almost as easy to use as the iPhone, and the other 800-pound gorilla now in the mobile landscape — has more than 261,000 available.

Not everything Jobs did turned to gold. Several products were failures, both before and after his return to Apple.

'Your time is limited' In 1985, Wozniak left Apple, but Jobs was forced out after clashes with members of Apple’s board of directors, including John Sculley, the former PepsiCo president Jobs brought to Apple to help run the company.

Jobs — acerbic, demanding, difficult, often cruel to the "fools" and mere mortals he did not suffer — was "devastated" by the ouster.

Still, Jobs reflected in that 2005 speech at Stanford, "it turned out that getting fired from Apple was the best thing that could have ever happened to me. The heaviness of being successful was replaced by the lightness of being a beginner again, less sure about everything. It freed me to enter one of the most creative periods of my life."

Consultant Bajarin said he met with Jobs on the second day after he came back to Apple in 1997. The company languished for much of the 12 years he was gone from it.

"At the time, Apple was $1 billion in the red and in serious trouble," Bajarin said. "So I asked him how he planned to save Apple. He said that he would go back and meet the need of their core customers. And then he said something that at the time puzzled me: He said he would pay close attention to industrial design when creating products. Not long after that, he gave us the candy-colored Macs that broke the mold of what a PC should look like."

Indeed, what followed was not only the iMac in 1998, but the iPod in 2001, iTunes Store two years later, and the iPhone in 2007 — as well as some duds like the Cube (2000) and Apple TV (2007), the latter still an anemic offering.

In "over 30 years of covering Steve Jobs as an analyst, I saw him at his highs and lows," Bajarin said. "But even in his lows, he never took his eye off of the vision of creating products that were stylish and simple to use."

And for much of the past decade, Jobs also heeded his own advice, given at that 2005 commencement speech:

"Your time is limited, so don't waste it living someone else's life," he said. "Don't be trapped by dogma — which is living with the results of other people's thinking. Don't let the noise of others' opinions drown out your own inner voice."

Most importantly, he added: "Have the courage to follow your heart and intuition. They somehow already know what you truly want to become. Everything else is secondary."

FROM WIKIPEDIA

Jobs holding a white iPhone 4 at Worldwide Developers Conference 2010

Born Steven Paul Jobs February 24, 1955(1955-02-24)
San Francisco, California, U.S.
Died October 5, 2011(2011-10-05) (aged 56)
Cause of death Pancreatic cancer
Alma mater Reed College (one semester in 1972)
Occupation Chairman, Apple Inc. Years active 1974–2011 Net worth $8.3 billion
(2011) Board member of The Walt Disney Company, Apple, Inc.
Religion Buddhism
Spouse Laurene Powell Jobs (m. 1991–2011; his death)
Children 4
Relatives Mona Simpson (sister)

Founding of Apple Computer

PHOTO - Steve Jobs and Bill Gates at the fifth D: All Things Digital conference (D5) in 2007

In 1976, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak and Ronald Wayne, with later funding from a then-semi-retired Intel product-marketing manager and engineer A.C. "Mike" Markkula Jr., founded Apple. Prior to co-founding Apple, Wozniak was an electronics hacker. Jobs and Wozniak had been friends for several years, having met in 1971, when their mutual friend, Bill Fernandez, introduced 21-year-old Wozniak to 16-year-old Jobs. Steve Jobs managed to interest Wozniak in assembling a computer and selling it. As Apple continued to expand, the company began looking for an experienced executive to help manage its expansion.

In 1978, Apple recruited Mike Scott from National Semiconductor to serve as CEO for what turned out to be several turbulent years. In 1983, Steve Jobs lured John Sculley away from Pepsi-Cola to serve as Apple's CEO, asking, "Do you want to sell sugar water for the rest of your life, or do you want to come with me and change the world?" The following year, Apple aired a Super Bowl television commercial titled "1984".

At Apple's annual shareholders meeting on January 24, 1984, an emotional Jobs introduced the Macintosh to a wildly enthusiastic audience; Andy Hertzfeld described the scene as "pandemonium". The Macintosh became the first commercially successful small computer with a graphical user interface. The development of the Mac was started by Jef Raskin, and eventually taken over by Jobs.

While Jobs was a persuasive and charismatic director for Apple, some of his employees from that time had described him as an erratic and temperamental manager. An industry-wide sales slump towards the end of 1984 caused a deterioration in Jobs's working relationship with Sculley, and at the end of May 1985 – following an internal power struggle and an announcement of significant layoffs because of disappointing sales at the time – Sculley relieved Jobs of his duties as head of the Macintosh division.

Jobs later claimed that being fired from Apple was the best thing that could happen to him; "The heaviness of being successful was replaced by the lightness of being a beginner again, less sure about everything. It freed me to enter one of the most creative periods of my life."

THE NeXT Computer

The NeXT (photo) used by Tim Berners-Lee at CERN that became the first server in the World Wide Web.

After leaving Apple, Jobs founded NeXT Computer in 1985 with $7 million. A year later, Jobs was running out of money, and with no product on the horizon, he appealed for venture capital. Eventually, he attracted the attention of billionaire Ross Perot who invested heavily in the company.

NeXT workstations were first released in 1990, priced at $9,999. Like the Apple Lisa, the NeXT workstation was technologically advanced, but it was largely dismissed by the educational sector it was designed for as cost-prohibitive.

The NeXT workstation was known for its technical strengths, chief among them its object-oriented software development system. Jobs marketed NeXT products to the financial, scientific, and academic community, highlighting its innovative, experimental new technologies, such as the Mach kernel, the digital signal processor chip, and the built-in Ethernet port.

The revised, second generation NeXTcube was also released in 1990. Jobs touted it as the first interpersonal computer which would replace the personal computer with its NeXTMail multimedia email system, making use of voice, image, graphics, and video. "Interpersonal computing is going to revolutionise human communications and groupwork", Jobs told reporters.

NeXTMail was one of the first to support universally visible, clickable embedded graphics and audio within e-mail. Jobs ran NeXT with an obsession for aesthetic perfection, as evidenced by the development and attention to NeXTcube's magnesium case. This put considerable strain on NeXT's hardware division, and in 1993, after having sold only 50,000 machines, NeXT transitioned fully to software development with the release of NeXTSTEP/Intel. The company reported its first profit of $1.03 million in 1994.

In 1996, NeXT Software, Inc. released WebObjects, a framework for web application development. After NeXT was acquired by Apple Inc. in 1997, WebObjects was used to build and run the Apple Store, MobileMe services, and the iTunes Store.

Pixar and Disney

In 1986, Jobs bought The Graphics Group (later renamed Pixar) from Lucasfilm's computer graphics division for the price of $10 million, $5 million of which was given to the company as capital.

The new company, which was originally based at Lucasfilm's Kerner Studios in San Rafael, California, but has since relocated to Emeryville, California, was initially intended to be a high-end graphics hardware developer. After years of unprofitability selling the Pixar Image Computer, it contracted with Disney to produce a number of computer-animated feature films, which Disney would co-finance and distribute.

The first film produced by the partnership, Toy Story, brought fame and critical acclaim to the studio when it was released in 1995. Over the next 15 years, under Pixar's creative chief John Lasseter, the company would produce the box-office hits A Bug's Life (1998), Toy Story 2 (1999), Monsters, Inc. (2001), Finding Nemo (2003), The Incredibles (2004), Cars (2006), Ratatouille (2007), WALL-E (2008), Up (2009) and Toy Story 3 (2010). Finding Nemo, The Incredibles, Ratatouille, WALL-E, Up and Toy Story 3 each received the Academy Award for Best Animated Feature, an award introduced in 2001.

In the years 2003 and 2004, as Pixar's contract with Disney was running out, Jobs and Disney chief executive Michael Eisner tried but failed to negotiate a new partnership,[52] and in early 2004 Jobs announced that Pixar would seek a new partner to distribute its films once its contract with Disney expired.

In October 2005, Bob Iger replaced Eisner at Disney, and Iger quickly worked to patch up relations with Jobs and Pixar. On January 24, 2006, Jobs and Iger announced that Disney had agreed to purchase Pixar in an all-stock transaction worth $7.4 billion. Once the deal closed, Jobs became The Walt Disney Company's largest single shareholder with approximately 7% of the company's stock.

Jobs's holdings in Disney far exceed those of Eisner, who holds 1.7%, and of Disney family member Roy E. Disney, who until his 2009 death held about 1% of the company's stock and whose criticisms of Eisner – especially that he soured Disney's relationship with Pixar – accelerated Eisner's ousting. Jobs joined the company's board of directors upon completion of the merger. Jobs also helped oversee Disney and Pixar's combined animation businesses with a seat on a special six person steering committee.

Return to Apple

PHOTO - Jobs on stage at Macworld Conference & Expo, San Francisco, January 11, 2005

Return to profitability" in Apple Computer, Inc.

In 1996, Apple announced that it would buy NeXT for $429 million. The deal was finalized in late 1996, bringing Jobs back to the company he had co-founded.

Jobs became de facto chief after then-CEO Gil Amelio was ousted in July. He was formally named interim chief executive in September 1997.

In March 1998, to concentrate Apple's efforts on returning to profitability, Jobs terminated a number of projects, such as Newton, Cyberdog, and OpenDoc. In the coming months, many employees developed a fear of encountering Jobs while riding in the elevator, "afraid that they might not have a job when the doors opened.

The reality was that Jobs' summary executions were rare, but a handful of victims was enough to terrorize a whole company." Jobs also changed the licensing program for Macintosh clones, making it too costly for the manufacturers to continue making machines.

With the purchase of NeXT, much of the company's technology found its way into Apple products, most notably NeXTSTEP, which evolved into Mac OS X. Under Jobs's guidance the company increased sales significantly with the introduction of the iMac and other new products; since then, appealing designs and powerful branding have worked well for Apple. At the 2000 Macworld Expo, Jobs officially dropped the "interim" modifier from his title at Apple and became permanent CEO. Jobs quipped at the time that he would be using the title 'iCEO.'

PHOTO - Jobs demonstrating the iPhone 4 to Russian President Dmitry Medvedev on June 23, 2010

The company subsequently branched out, introducing and improving upon other digital appliances. With the introduction of the iPod portable music player, iTunes digital music software, and the iTunes Store, the company made forays into consumer electronics and music distribution.

On June 29, 2007, Apple entered the cellular phone business with the introduction of the iPhone, a multi-touch display cell phone, which also included the features of an iPod and, with its own mobile browser, revolutionized the mobile browsing scene. While stimulating innovation, Jobs also reminded his employees that "real artists ship", by which he meant that delivering working products on time is as important as innovation and attractive design.

Jobs was both admired and criticized for his consummate skill at persuasion and salesmanship, which has been dubbed the "reality distortion field" and was particularly evident during his keynote speeches (colloquially known as "Stevenotes") at Macworld Expos and at Apple's own Worldwide Developers Conferences.

In 2005, Jobs responded to criticism of Apple's poor recycling programs for e-waste in the U.S. by lashing out at environmental and other advocates at Apple's Annual Meeting in Cupertino in April.

However, a few weeks later, Apple announced it would take back iPods for free at its retail stores. The Computer TakeBack Campaign responded by flying a banner from a plane over the Stanford University graduation at which Jobs was the commencement speaker. The banner read "Steve — Don't be a mini-player recycle all e-waste".

In 2006, he further expanded Apple's recycling programs to any U.S. customer who buys a new Mac. This program includes shipping and "environmentally friendly disposal" of their old systems.

Philanthropy

Bloomberg accidentally published Jobs' obituary in 2008. Arik Hesseldahl of BusinessWeek magazine opined that "Jobs isn't widely known for his association with philanthropic causes", compared to Bill Gates' efforts. After resuming control of Apple in 1997, Jobs eliminated all corporate philanthropy programs.

Personal life

Jobs married Laurene Powell, on March 18, 1991. Presiding over the wedding was the Zen Buddhist monk Kobun Chino Otogawa.

The couple have a son and two daughters. Jobs also has a daughter, Lisa Brennan-Jobs (born 1978), from his relationship with Bay Area painter Chrisann Brennan. She briefly raised their daughter on welfare when Jobs denied paternity by claiming he was sterile; he later acknowledged Lisa as his daughter.

In the unauthorized biography, The Second Coming of Steve Jobs, author Alan Deutschman reports that Jobs once dated Joan Baez. Deutschman quotes Elizabeth Holmes, a friend of Jobs from his time at Reed College, as saying she "believed that Steve became the lover of Joan Baez in large measure because Baez had been the lover of Bob Dylan."

In another unauthorized biography, iCon: Steve Jobs by Jeffrey S. Young & William L. Simon, the authors suggest that Jobs might have married Baez, but her age at the time meant it was unlikely the couple could have children.

Jobs was also a fan of The Beatles. He referred to them on multiple occasions at Keynotes and also was interviewed on a showing of a Paul McCartney concert. When asked about his business model on 60 Minutes, he replied:

My model for business is The Beatles: They were four guys that kept each other's negative tendencies in check; they balanced each other. And the total was greater than the sum of the parts.

Great things in business are not done by one person, they are done by a team of people. In 1982, Jobs bought an apartment in The San Remo, an apartment building in New York City with a politically progressive reputation, where Demi Moore, Steven Spielberg, Steve Martin, and Princess Yasmin Aga Khan, daughter of Rita Hayworth, also had apartments.

With the help of I.M. Pei, Jobs spent years renovating his apartment in the top two floors of the building's north tower, only to sell it almost two decades later to U2 singer Bono. Jobs had never moved in.

In 1984, Jobs purchased a 17,000-square-foot (1,600 m2), 14-bedroom Spanish Colonial mansion, designed by George Washington Smith, in Woodside, California (also known as Jackling House).

Although it reportedly remained in an almost unfurnished state, Jobs lived in the mansion for almost ten years. According to reports, he kept an old BMW motorcycle in the living room, and let Bill Clinton use it in 1998.

From the early 1990s, Jobs lived in a house in the Old Palo Alto neighborhood of Palo Alto. President Clinton dined with Jobs and 14 Silicon Valley CEOs there on August 7, 1996 on a meal catered by Greens Restaurant. Clinton returned the favor and Jobs, who was a Democratic donor, slept in the Lincoln bedroom of the White House.

Jobs allowed Jackling House to fall into a state of disrepair, planning to demolish the house and build a smaller home on the property; but he met with complaints from local preservationists over his plans. In June 2004, the Woodside Town Council gave Jobs approval to demolish the mansion, on the condition that he advertise the property for a year to see if someone would move it to another location and restore it.

A number of people expressed interest, including several with experience in restoring old property, but no agreements to that effect were reached. Later that same year, a local preservationist group began seeking legal action to prevent demolition. In January 2007 Jobs was denied the right to demolish the property, by a court decision. The court decision was overturned on appeal in March 2010 and the mansion was demolished beginning February 2011.

Jobs usually wore a black long-sleeved mock turtleneck made by St. Croix, Levi's 501 blue jeans, and New Balance 991 sneakers. He was a pescetarian, one whose diet includes fish but no other meat.

His car was a silver 2008 Mercedes SL 55 AMG, which does not display its license plates.

Jobs had a public war of words with Dell Computer CEO Michael Dell, starting [when?] when Jobs first criticized Dell for making "un-innovative beige boxes".

On October 6, 1997, in a Gartner Symposium, when Michael Dell was asked what he would do if he owned then-troubled Apple Computer, he said "I'd shut it down and give the money back to the shareholders." In 2006, Steve Jobs sent an email to all employees when Apple's market capitalization rose above Dell's. The email read:

Team, it turned out that Michael Dell wasn't perfect at predicting the future. Based on today's stock market close, Apple is worth more than Dell. Stocks go up and down, and things may be different tomorrow, but I thought it was worth a moment of reflection today. Steve.

Health Flags flown at half-staff outside the Apple Campus on the announcement of Steve Jobs' death.

In mid-2004, Jobs announced to his employees that he had been diagnosed with a cancerous tumor in his pancreas. The prognosis for pancreatic cancer is usually very poor; Jobs, however, stated that he had a rare, far less aggressive type known as islet cell neuroendocrine tumor.

Jobs resisted his doctors' recommendations for evidence-based medical intervention for nine months, instead consuming a special alt-med diet to thwart the disease, before eventually undergoing a pancreaticoduodenectomy (or "Whipple procedure") in July 2004 that appeared to successfully remove the tumor.

Jobs apparently did not require nor receive chemotherapy or radiation therapy. During Jobs' absence, Timothy D. Cook, head of worldwide sales and operations at Apple, ran the company.

In early August 2006, Jobs delivered the keynote for Apple's annual Worldwide Developers Conference. His "thin, almost gaunt" appearance and unusually "listless" delivery, together with his choice to delegate significant portions of his keynote to other presenters, inspired a flurry of media and Internet speculation about his health. In contrast, according to an Ars Technica journal report, WWDC attendees who saw Jobs in person said he "looked fine" Following the keynote, an Apple spokesperson said that "Steve's health is robust."

2008 Development

Two years later, similar concerns followed Jobs' 2008 WWDC keynote address. Apple officials stated Jobs was victim to a "common bug" and was taking antibiotics, while others surmised his cachectic appearance was due to the Whipple procedure.

During a July conference call discussing Apple earnings, participants responded to repeated questions about Steve Jobs' health by insisting that it was a "private matter". Others, however, voiced the opinion that shareholders had a right to know more, given Jobs' hands-on approach to running his company.

The New York Times published an article based on an off-the-record phone conversation with Jobs, noting that "while his health issues have amounted to a good deal more than 'a common bug,' they weren't life-threatening and he doesn't have a recurrence of cancer."

PHOTO - Jobs at the 2008 Macworld Conference & Expo

On August 28, 2008, Bloomberg mistakenly published a 2500-word obituary of Jobs in its corporate news service, containing blank spaces for his age and cause of death. (News carriers customarily stockpile up-to-date obituaries to facilitate news delivery in the event of a well-known figure's untimely death.)

Although the error was promptly rectified, many news carriers and blogs reported on it, intensifying rumors concerning Jobs' health.

Jobs responded at Apple's September 2008 Let's Rock keynote by quoting Mark Twain: "Reports of my death are greatly exaggerated."

At a subsequent media event, Jobs concluded his presentation with a slide reading "110/70", referring to his blood pressure, stating he would not address further questions about his health.

On December 16, 2008, Apple announced that marketing vice-president Phil Schiller would deliver the company's final keynote address at the Macworld Conference and Expo 2009, again reviving questions about Jobs' health.

In a statement given on January 5, 2009 on Apple.com, Jobs said that he had been suffering from a "hormone imbalance" for several months. On January 14, 2009, in an internal Apple memo, Jobs wrote that in the previous week he had "learned that my health-related issues are more complex than I originally thought" and announced a six-month leave of absence until the end of June 2009 to allow him to better focus on his health. Tim Cook, who had previously acted as CEO in Jobs' 2004 absence, became acting CEO of Apple, with Jobs still involved with "major strategic decisions."

In April 2009, Jobs underwent a liver transplant at Methodist University Hospital Transplant Institute in Memphis, Tennessee. Jobs' prognosis was "excellent".

Death

On October 5, 2011, Jobs' family made a statement that he "died peacefully today".

PHOTO - Screenshot of Apple.com's tribute to Steve Jobs.

Apple released a separate statement saying that Jobs had died. The statement read "We are deeply saddened to announce that Steve Jobs passed away today. Steve's brilliance, passion and energy were the source of countless innovations that enrich and improve all of our lives. The world is immeasurably better because of Steve. His greatest love was for his wife, Laurene, and his family. Our hearts go out to them and to all who were touched by his extraordinary gifts."

Also on October 5, 2011, Apple's corporate website greeted visitors with a simple page showing Jobs's name and lifespan next to his greyscale portrait.

Clicking on Jobs's image led to an obituary that read "Apple has lost a visionary and creative genius, and the world has lost an amazing human being. Those of us who have been fortunate enough to know and work with Steve have lost a dear friend and an inspiring mentor.

Steve leaves behind a company that only he could have built, and his spirit will forever be the foundation of Apple." An email address was also posted for the public to share their memories, condolences, and thoughts.

Jobs was survived by his wife, Laurene, to whom he was married for 20 years; their three children; and a fourth child, Lisa Brennan-Jobs, from a previous relationship.


Chief News Editor: Sol Jose Vanzi

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