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PHNO SCIENCE & INFOTECH NEWS THIS PAST WEEK
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BILL & MELINDA GATES FUNDING AN IMPLANT THAT COULD HELP PREVENT HIV


THE GATES VISITING AFRICA The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation reportedly invested $140 million in a small pump which, when implanted under the skin, can deliver a steady flow of HIV-fighting drugs.
According to UNAIDS, 36.7 million people are estimated to be living with the disease, 1.8 million of which are children. A SKIN DEEP TREATMENT The technology for an HIV prevention implant is in the early stages of development with the support of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. The foundation reportedly invested $140 million in the research, according to a press release by Intarcia Therapeutics Inc. The Boston-based pharmaceutical company designed a small pump which, when implanted under the skin, can deliver a steady flow of HIV-fighting drugs. This removes the necessity of taking the course of medicine daily since the pump is able to store enough doses for 6 to 12 months. By using pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) – a preventive method for people not currently infected with HIV, but at significant risk of getting it – the treatment preempts the virus. PrEP has been shown to reduce infection by 92% if taken consistently—something that is insured, given the mechanics of the implant.  READ MORE...

ALSO: NEW SURGERY CAN GIVE THE LEGALLY BLIND 20/20 VISION


FUTURISMResearchers removed the jellylike tissue behind the lens of the eye and replaced it with a saline solution in 20 patients who had Terson syndrome. One month after the surgery, patients' vision improved to an average of 20/40 from an average of 20/1290 and, within a few months, almost all patients had 20/20 vision.
NEW VISION AFTER TRAUMA  The CDC estimates that in 2010 alone, 2.5 million emergency room visits or deaths were associated with traumatic brain injury in the United States. This type of injury can cause severe damage to a patient’s vision, and even lead to blindness. Now though, researchers have discovered that sight can be restored in people who’ve suffered from a traumatic brain injury. Even more, they were able to restore perfect vision in patients who were legally blind prior to their injury.READ MORE...

ALSO: Living Forever - What it Means to Have an “Indefinite Lifespan”


DEFYING AGING Can science really enable us stick around on Earth forever? Experts haven’t developed ways to make us invincible, immortal beings who are unsusceptible to physical trauma or starvation. However, studies have been going on to make aging just another preventable disease. Effectively stalling the deterioration of our bodies would then mean humans could live indefinitely. Peter Diamandis, co-founder of San Diego-based genotype research facility Human Longevity, Inc., spoke at the Singularity University in California last September about challenging aging and the deterioration of the body. The key to unlocking an indefinite lifespan was to improve the repair mechanisms of the body, said Diamandis. His research teams consider the possibility of using stem cells or nanomachines to regenerate our bodies. Last year, researchers from the Stanford University School of Medicine have used chromosome extensions that dramatically increased the rate of cell division, a growth mechanism of our bodies that weakens over time. The development hints at a chance to turn back the biological clock. READ MORE...

ALSO: Scientists May Have Identified the Protein That Controls Aging


Credit: Pasieka/Science Photo Library Two biochemists have discovered a link between a protein called carbonic anhydrase and aging in the brains and muscle cells of mice. While still in the early stages of development, their research could lead to treatments for diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s.
A POWERFUL PROTEIN In addition to being the “powerhouse of the cell,” the mitochondria could also be home to a certain protein that’s in charge of the body’s aging, according to a new study by two biochemists at Nottingham University. Dr. Lisa Chakrabarti and PhD student Amelia Pollard examined the brain and muscle cells of both young and middle-aged mice and noted that high levels of a protein called carbonic anhydrase were found in those of the older mice. A high concentration of carbonic anhydrase was also reflected in samples from young brains suffering from early degeneration, suggesting that an increased concentration of the protein could be linked to the aging process. READ MORE...


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Bill and Melinda Gates are Funding an Implant That Could Help Prevent HIV

UNaids, JANUARY 2, 2017 (FUTURISM) The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation reportedly invested $140 million in a small pump which, when implanted under the skin, can deliver a steady flow of HIV-fighting drugs.

According to UNAIDS, 36.7 million people are estimated to be living with the disease, 1.8 million of which are children.

A SKIN DEEP TREATMENT


UNAIDS

The technology for an HIV prevention implant is in the early stages of development with the support of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. The foundation reportedly invested $140 million in the research, according to a press release by Intarcia Therapeutics Inc.

The Boston-based pharmaceutical company designed a small pump which, when implanted under the skin, can deliver a steady flow of HIV-fighting drugs. This removes the necessity of taking the course of medicine daily since the pump is able to store enough doses for 6 to 12 months.

By using pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) – a preventive method for people not currently infected with HIV, but at significant risk of getting it – the treatment preempts the virus. PrEP has been shown to reduce infection by 92% if taken consistently—something that is insured, given the mechanics of the implant.

READ MORE...

This treatment method could still be years away from widespread implementation, but it holds great promise since maintenance of the device would only take place once or twice a year. The questions of which drug will be released by the implant, as well as how much the whole treatment will cost are still up in the air. If developed and applied correctly, however, it could slow down the rampant spread and influence of HIV and AIDS in places with exceptionally high prevalence, like sub-Saharan Africa.

NO LONGER A DEATH SENTENCE

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a type of virus that gradually wears down the body’s immune system. It’s transmitted through the exchange of bodily fluids with an infected person. If left untreated, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) develops, by which time the body would be too weak to fight off even common infections.

Having HIV/AIDS used to mean death in a couple of years, but thanks to advancements in medicine and technology, the disease has become manageable.

Make no mistake though: HIV/AIDS is still a very serious problem, most strikingly for places with no access to quality medical facilities. According to UNAIDS, 36.7 million people are estimated to be living with the disease, 1.8 million of which are children.

Great leaps have been made in treatments, with highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART) extending life expectancy by as much as 20 years, and significantly slowing down the progression from HIV to AIDS. This new implant, if enacted properly, could boost those statistics even further. A continuous effort to provide access to HIV/AIDS care to those who need it is of vital importance, especially among those who live in resource-poor countries.


FUTURISM

New Surgery Can Give the Legally Blind 20/20 Vision

Researchers removed the jellylike tissue behind the lens of the eye and replaced it with a saline solution in 20 patients who had Terson syndrome.

One month after the surgery, patients' vision improved to an average of 20/40 from an average of 20/1290 and, within a few months, almost all patients had 20/20 vision.

NEW VISION AFTER TRAUMA

The CDC estimates that in 2010 alone, 2.5 million emergency room visits or deaths were associated with traumatic brain injury in the United States. This type of injury can cause severe damage to a patient’s vision, and even lead to blindness.

 Now though, researchers have discovered that sight can be restored in people who’ve suffered from a traumatic brain injury. Even more, they were able to restore perfect vision in patients who were legally blind prior to their injury.

READ MORE...


Credit: Courtesy of the journal Ophthalmology

A small study conducted by researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, the Kresge Eye Institute at Wayne State University in Detroit, and the L.V. Prasad Eye Institute in India was published in the journal Ophthalmology.

The research included 20 patients who had surgery for Terson syndrome, a specific type of hemorrhage caused mostly by traumatic injury, such as vehicular collisions. Some of the patients experienced this hemorrhaging in both eyes, thus allowing for the study of 28 eyes.

The procedure used to restore sight in these patients is known as a vitrectomy. The surgery removes the jellylike tissue behind the lens of the eye and replaces it with a saline solution. The patients were split into groups who had the surgery within three months of the hemorrhage and those who received it after the three month mark.

LEGALLY BLIND TO NORMAL SIGHT

Just one month after the surgery, patients’ vision improved to an average of 20/40 from an average of 20/1290. Within a few months, almost all patients had 20/20 vision (normal visual acuity).

Researchers noted how the length of time between the injury and the surgery did not factor into how well the patient’s sight was improved. This is an important development since there are often other factors more closely linked with a patient’s imminent death that must be stabilized prior to any surgery to restore sight can take place.

As Rajendra S. Apte, MD, PhD, the Paul A. Cibis Distinguished Professor of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences at Washington University School of Medicine stated “It was important to learn how long we could wait to operate without having a negative effect on vision.” This could have a huge impact on those staggering statistics, offering hope to millions of people each year.


FUTURISM

Living Forever: What it Means to Have an “Indefinite Lifespan” Author Stream WRITTEN BY Jess Vilvestre December 4, 2016 #anti-aging#degenerative disease#gero-protectors#indefinite lifespan

IN BRIEF

•Peter Diamandis, co-founder of Human Longevity, Inc., thinks the key to keeping us youthful is to improve the repair mechanisms of the body.

•Research on drugs like metformin, and other geroprotectors, may help to find ways to expand the human "health span."

DEFYING AGING

Can science really enable us stick around on Earth forever? Experts haven’t developed ways to make us invincible, immortal beings who are unsusceptible to physical trauma or starvation. However, studies have been going on to make aging just another preventable disease. Effectively stalling the deterioration of our bodies would then mean humans could live indefinitely.

Peter Diamandis, co-founder of San Diego-based genotype research facility Human Longevity, Inc., spoke at the Singularity University in California last September about challenging aging and the deterioration of the body. The key to unlocking an indefinite lifespan was to improve the repair mechanisms of the body, said Diamandis. His research teams consider the possibility of using stem cells or nanomachines to regenerate our bodies.

Last year, researchers from the Stanford University School of Medicine have used chromosome extensions that dramatically increased the rate of cell division, a growth mechanism of our bodies that weakens over time. The development hints at a chance to turn back the biological clock.

READ HERE,,,


Credit: Alamy Stock Photo

Metformin, a drug used to control diabetes, was dubbed “the fountain of youth” after discovering that it can extend the life of animals and prevent cancer. The drug increased the number of oxygen molecules processed by the cell, boosting metabolic and cellular processes vital to keeping us in good heath. Clinical testing for Metformin as an anti-aging drug began in February.

IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF HEALTH

The developers of Metformin claimed that the drug could possibly help us live up to 120 years old, something that sounds straight out of science fiction. More and more, science is helping us understand our bodies and how we can cope with disease, and even aging.

Who wants to live forever? While answers may vary from person to person, what’s evident is that these developments are aiming to keep each person at their prime health and to spare people from the pain and difficulty of degenerative disease.

Stephanie Lederman, director of the American Foundation for Aging Research in New York, said, “The perception is that we are all looking for a fountain of youth…what we’re trying to do is increase health span, not look for eternal life.”
References: Wikipedia, Inverse

https://futurism.com/?p=60278&post_type=post 


FUTURISM

Scientists May Have Identified the Protein That Controls Aging Getty Images
IN BRIEF WRITTEN BY AUTHOR Jess Vilvestre EDITOR Kristin Houser Website October 11, 2016 #Aging #carbonic anhydrase #mitochondria


Credit: Pasieka/Science Photo Library

Two biochemists have discovered a link between a protein called carbonic anhydrase and aging in the brains and muscle cells of mice.

While still in the early stages of development, their research could lead to treatments for diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s.

A POWERFUL PROTEIN

In addition to being the “powerhouse of the cell,” the mitochondria could also be home to a certain protein that’s in charge of the body’s aging, according to a new study by two biochemists at Nottingham University.

Dr. Lisa Chakrabarti and PhD student Amelia Pollard examined the brain and muscle cells of both young and middle-aged mice and noted that high levels of a protein called carbonic anhydrase were found in those of the older mice.

A high concentration of carbonic anhydrase was also reflected in samples from young brains suffering from early degeneration, suggesting that an increased concentration of the protein could be linked to the aging process.

READ MORE...

To further test the theory, the scientists fed carbonic anhydrase to tiny nematode worms and found that their lifespans were shortened as well.

CLUES TO FURTHER RESEARCH

Knowing that carbonic anhydrase has this effect could help us unlock future treatments to slow general aging or mitigate such neurodegenerative diseases as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s Disease.

“This gives us a very promising start in working out how we can best target this protein within the mitochondria to slow the effects of aging in the body while limiting other unwanted side effects on the body,” said Chakrabarti. “It could potentially offer a significant new avenue in both tackling degenerative illnesses and the general effects of aging on the body.”

Though Chakrabarti and Pollard’s work is promising, we are still quite a long way from fully understanding the causes of cellular degeneration. There’s a big leap from mice to men, so further testing will need to be done before their research can be applied to human subjects.

References: The Sun, The University of Nottingham
https://futurism.com/?p=55700&post_type=post 


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