WORLD WIDE WEB INVENTOR WARNS VS GROUPS WANTING TO CONTROL THE INTERNET 

SEPT 30 --PHOTO: British computer scientist Tim Berners-Lee. AFP FILE PHOTO--The British inventor of the World Wide Web warned on Saturday that the freedom of the internet is under threat by governments and corporations interested in controlling the web. Tim Berners-Lee, a computer scientist who invented the web 25 years ago, called for a bill of rights that would guarantee the independence of the internet and ensure users’ privacy.

“If a company can control your access to the internet, if they can control which websites they go to, then they have tremendous control over your life,” Berners-Lee said at the London “Web We Want” festival on the future of the internet. “If a Government can block you going to, for example, the opposition’s political pages, then they can give you a blinkered view of reality to keep themselves in power.” “Suddenly the power to abuse the open internet has become so tempting both for government and big companies.” Berners-Lee, 59, is director of the World Wide Web Consortium, a body which develops guidelines for the development of the internet. * READ MORE...

ALSO: World Wide Web born at CERN 25 years ago 

In March 1989 Tim Berners-Lee (photo), a scientist working at CERN, submitted a proposal to develop a radical new way of linking and sharing information over the internet. The document was entitled Information Management: A Proposal (link is external). And so the web was born.
The first website at CERN – and in the world – was dedicated to the World Wide Web project itself. Last April CERN initiated a project to restore the first website, and to bring back the spirit of that time through its technical innovation and the founding principles of openness and freedom.
In 1993 CERN put the World Wide Web software in the public domain. CERN made the next release available with an open licence, as a more sure way to maximise its dissemination. Through these actions, making the software required to run a web server freely available, along with a basic browser and a library of code, the web was allowed to flourish.

"Beyond CERN's role in helping us understand the universe, it was a great place to work in 1989," said Tim Berners-Lee. "CERN was an early adopter of Internet protocols, and their support for a Royalty-Free Web has been a key to its widespread adoption today." Now Tim Berners-Lee, the World Wide Web Consortium (link is external) (W3C) and the World Wide Web Foundation (link is external) are launching a series of initiatives (link is external) to mark the 25th anniversary of the original proposal. In addition, Berners-Lee and the Web Foundation are launching "The web we want (link is external)" campaign to promote a global dialogue and change in public policy to ensure that the web remains an open, free, accessible medium – so that everyone on the planet can participate in the free flow of knowledge, ideas and creativity online... LICENSING THE WEB...* READ MORE...

ALSO: Twenty years of a free, open web 

SEPT 29 --PHOTO: Screenshot of the original NeXT web browser in 1993 (Image: Berners-Lee/CERN). On 30 April 1993 CERN put the World Wide Web software in the public domain. CERN made the next release available with an open licence, as a more sure way to maximise its dissemination. Through these actions, making the software required to run a web server freely available, along with a basic browser and a library of code, the web was allowed to flourish. British physicist Tim Berners-Lee invented the web at CERN in 1989.

The project, which Berners-Lee named "World Wide Web", was originally conceived and developed to meet the demand for information sharing between physicists in universities and institutes around the world. Other information retrieval systems that used the internet - such as WAIS and Gopher - were available at the time, but the web's simplicity along with the fact that the technology was royalty free led to its rapid adoption and development.“There is no sector of society that has not been transformed by the invention, in a physics laboratory, of the web,” says Rolf Heuer, CERN Director-General. “From research to business and education, the web has been reshaping the way we communicate, work, innovate and live. The web is a powerful example of the way that basic research benefits humankind.” * READ MORE...

ALSO: CERN turns 60, celebrates peaceful collaboration for science 

Today, CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, is blowing out 60 candles at an event attended by official delegations from 35 countries. Founded in 1954, CERN is today the largest particle physics laboratory in the world and a prime example of international collaboration, bringing together scientists of almost 100 nationalities. CERN’s origins can be traced back to the late 1940s. In the aftermath of the Second World War, a small group of visionary scientists and public administrators, on both sides of the Atlantic, identified fundamental research as a potential vehicle to rebuild the continent and to foster peace in a troubled region.

It was from these ideas that CERN was born on 29 September 1954, with a dual mandate to provide excellent science, and to bring nations together. This blueprint for collaboration has worked remarkably well over the years and expanded to all the continents. “For six decades, CERN has been a place where people can work together, regardless of their culture and nationality. We form a bridge between cultures by speaking a single universal language and that language is science,” said CERN Director-General Rolf Heuer. “Indeed, science is an essential part of culture. Maestro Ashkenazy, conducting the European Union Youth Orchestra here today puts it most eloquently in saying that while music reflects the reality of our spiritual life and tries to convey to us the essence of our existence, science’s mission is extremely similar; it also tries to explain the world to us.”

CERN came into being on 29 September 1954 when its convention, agreed by 12 founding Member States, came into force. Over the years and with its continuing success, CERN has attracted new countries and become a truly global organization, Today it has 21 Member States and more than 10,000 users from all over the world, and more countries have applied for membership. “Over time, CERN has become the world’s leading laboratory in particle physics, always oriented towards, and achieving, excellence,” said President of CERN Council Agnieszka Zalewska. CERN’s business is fundamental physics, aiming to find out what the universe is made of and how it works. Since 1954, the landscape of fundamental physics has dramatically changed. Then, knowledge of matter at the smallest scales was limited to the atom of the nucleus. In 60 years, particle physicists have advanced knowledge of forces and matter at the smallest scales, developed a sound theory based on this knowledge – the Standard model – and improved the understanding of the universe and its beginnings. * CONTINUE READING...


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World Wide Web inventor warns vs groups wanting to control Internet


British computer scientist Tim Berners-Lee. AFP FILE PHOTO

LONDON, OCTOBER 6, 2014 (INQUIRER) Agence France-Presse - The British inventor of the World Wide Web warned on Saturday that the freedom of the internet is under threat by governments and corporations interested in controlling the web.

Tim Berners-Lee, a computer scientist who invented the web 25 years ago, called for a bill of rights that would guarantee the independence of the internet and ensure users’ privacy.

“If a company can control your access to the internet, if they can control which websites they go to, then they have tremendous control over your life,” Berners-Lee said at the London “Web We Want” festival on the future of the internet.

“If a Government can block you going to, for example, the opposition’s political pages, then they can give you a blinkered view of reality to keep themselves in power.”

“Suddenly the power to abuse the open internet has become so tempting both for government and big companies.”

Berners-Lee, 59, is director of the World Wide Web Consortium, a body which develops guidelines for the development of the internet.

* He called for an internet version of the “Magna Carta,” the 13th century English charter credited with guaranteeing basic rights and freedoms.

Concerns over privacy and freedom on the internet have increased in the wake of the revelation of mass government monitoring of online activity following leaks by former US intelligence contractor Edward Snowden.

A ruling by the European Union to allow individuals to ask search engines such as Google to remove links to information about them, called the “right to be forgotten,” has also raised concerns over the potential for censorship.

“There have been lots of times that it has been abused, so now the Magna Carta is about saying…I want a web where I’m not spied on, where there’s no censorship,” Berners-Lee said.

The scientist added that in order to be a “neutral medium,” the internet had to reflect all of humanity, including “some ghastly stuff.”

“Now some things are of course just illegal, child pornography, fraud, telling someone how to rob a bank, that’s illegal before the web and it’s illegal after the web,” Berners-Lee added.

World Wide Web born at CERN 25 years ago Posted by Cian O'Luanaigh on 12 Mar 2014. Last updated 8 Apr 2014, 13.50.

In March 1989 Tim Berners-Lee, a scientist working at CERN, submitted a proposal to develop a radical new way of linking and sharing information over the internet. The document was entitled Information Management: A Proposal (link is external). And so the web was born.

The first website at CERN – and in the world – was dedicated to the World Wide Web project itself.

Last April CERN initiated a project to restore the first website, and to bring back the spirit of that time through its technical innovation and the founding principles of openness and freedom.

In 1993 CERN put the World Wide Web software in the public domain. CERN made the next release available with an open licence, as a more sure way to maximise its dissemination. Through these actions, making the software required to run a web server freely available, along with a basic browser and a library of code, the web was allowed to flourish.

"Beyond CERN's role in helping us understand the universe, it was a great place to work in 1989," said Tim Berners-Lee.

"CERN was an early adopter of Internet protocols, and their support for a Royalty-Free Web has been a key to its widespread adoption today."

Now Tim Berners-Lee, the World Wide Web Consortium (link is external) (W3C) and the World Wide Web Foundation (link is external) are launching a series of initiatives (link is external) to mark the 25th anniversary of the original proposal.

In addition, Berners-Lee and the Web Foundation are launching "The web we want (link is external)" campaign to promote a global dialogue and change in public policy to ensure that the web remains an open, free, accessible medium – so that everyone on the planet can participate in the free flow of knowledge, ideas and creativity online.


The image on the cover page of Tim Berners-Lee's proposal for the World Wide Web in March 1989 (Image: CERN)

Licensing the web Tim Smith, François Flückiger

Public releases of web software

* On 30 April 1993 CERN issued a public statement stating that the three components of web software (the basic line-mode client, the basic server and the library of common code) were put in the Public Domain with the statement:
“CERN relinquishes all intellectual property rights to this code, both source and binary and permission is given to anyone to use, duplicate, modify and distribute it.”

It was the early 90s and concepts like free and open software and public domain were in their infancy. Richard Stallman had created the Free Software Foundation, launched the GNU project and written the GNU General Public Licence (GPL).

He was already evangelizing the computing community, recommending protection of software by keeping ownership to guarantee its free use.

Open Source release

In summer 1994, Tim Berners-Lee left CERN to create the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C (link is external)) at MIT (link is external). François Flückiger took over his technical team at CERN. At that time, the team was preparing the release of version 3 of the CERN server software, WWW (HTTPD).

By that time, the Free Software movement had become more active, better known at CERN, and the risks of appropriation were more clearly described, in particular by Richard Stallman and the GNU project. Flückiger evaluated various options with CERN’s Legal service and decided to release the new version as Open Source – CERN would retain the copyright to protect the software from appropriation as well as to secure attribution, but would grant to anyone the perpetual and irrevocable right to use and modify it, freely and at no cost.

The 15 November 1994, Flückiger sent the following message sent web community:
“The new versions will remain freely available, for general use, and at no cost. The only change is that the material distributed will remain copyrighted by CERN. As a consequence, a copyright notice will have to appear in copies, but also, the rights of the users will be protected, in particular by preventing third parties to turn free software into proprietary software, and deny the users the rights to freely use the material.”

The first CERN Open Source software licence

CERN developed its own open-source licence to accommodate the laboratory’s legal status as an international organization. The license had two main threads: copyright and free use.

“The copyright and all other rights relating to this computer software, in whatever form, including but not limited to the source code, the object code and user documentation, are vested in CERN. CERN, on a royalty-free and non-exclusive basis, hereby grants permission to use, copy, change, modify, translate, display, distribute and make available this computer software, subject to the following conditions.”

CERN opted for a fully permissive open-source licence. This meant that the licensees had the right to release derivative works under a licence of their choice, provided they perpetuated the statement attributing the credit of the initial work to CERN:
“This product includes computer software created and made available by CERN. This acknowledgement shall be mentioned in full in any product which includes the CERN computer software included herein or parts thereof.”

MIT Open Source release

In 1995 the W3C was established at MIT. It was later complemented with a European Leg at the Institut de Recherche en Informatique et Automatique (link is external) (INRIA). While V3.0 of the web was the first release by CERN of Open Source software, it was also the last release by CERN of any web software – the ball was now in the court of the W3C.

In July 1995, MIT released version 3.1 of the WWW (HTTPD) software, based on the CERN version 3.0. Just as CERN had done six months earlier, an MIT-specific licence was chosen, close to the CERN one. It was also a fully permissive licence.

Since then all the subsequent versions of the web software released by MIT were Open Source. They always faithfully reproduced the CERN credit notice. The attribution issue had been satisfactorily addressed by the first CERN-specific licence.

Towards “Copyleft”

By adopting an Open Source policy in 94, CERN had made a significant step towards better understanding the mechanisms for freely distributing its software. But we were still learning and the maturing process was not over yet.

Indeed, a few years later we started to appreciate not only the power but also the risks of a fully permissive licence which allows derivative works to be distributed under a different licence. Even though a fully permissive licence was a powerful incentive for dissemination of CERN software, it held within it the seeds of more subtle forms or appropriation, and more importantly, did not provide the necessary incentive for what was later called “collaborative dissemination”.

Collaborative dissemination is the creation of open communities of users who are invited to improve and complement the software and share their enhancements with the community. The vehicle for this is not a permissive licence as it does not encourage the licensees to reinvest their improvements in the community. The appropriate vehicle is Copyleft licensing.

The philosophy of Copyleft licensing is as follows:
“As a User (the Licensee) of the licensed software, you cannot redistribute the original or a derivative work with fewer rights than the ones you yourself received.”

Since an Open Source user receives the source of the software, then the user must, in turn, provide the source of any modified version. As a derivative work must be distributed under the same licence, Copyleft licences are said to ensure the non-appropriation by third-parties of the Open Source software.

Standard Form Licences

Copyleft licensing is now the recommended and most frequently used means for freely and openly distributing CERN software. But rather than continuing to write our own licences, we turned instead to standard form licences certified by the Open Source Initiative (OSI) authority, such as GPLv3. We realised that the importance of having a licence whose spirit is instantly recognizable and whose terms are familiar outweighed the desire to tailor terms which make our status clear. This was the way to maximize re-use!

Like our research at CERN, this also was a journey of discovery. We had to learn, and this learning was largely achieved through the most famous of all CERN software, the one that changed the face of the world.

Twenty years of a free, open web Marina Giampietro


Screenshot of the original NeXT web browser in 1993 (Image: Berners-Lee/CERN)

On 30 April 1993 CERN put the World Wide Web software in the public domain. CERN made the next release available with an open licence, as a more sure way to maximise its dissemination. Through these actions, making the software required to run a web server freely available, along with a basic browser and a library of code, the web was allowed to flourish.

British physicist Tim Berners-Lee invented the web at CERN in 1989. The project, which Berners-Lee named "World Wide Web", was originally conceived and developed to meet the demand for information sharing between physicists in universities and institutes around the world.

Other information retrieval systems that used the internet - such as WAIS and Gopher - were available at the time, but the web's simplicity along with the fact that the technology was royalty free led to its rapid adoption and development.

“There is no sector of society that has not been transformed by the invention, in a physics laboratory, of the web,” says Rolf Heuer, CERN Director-General. “From research to business and education, the web has been reshaping the way we communicate, work, innovate and live. The web is a powerful example of the way that basic research benefits humankind.”

* The first website at CERN - and in the world - was dedicated to the World Wide Web project itself and was hosted on Berners-Lee's NeXT computer. The website described the basic features of the web; how to access other people's documents and how to set up your own server. Although the NeXT machine - the original web server - is still at CERN, sadly the world's first website is no longer online at its original address.

To mark the anniversary of the publication of the document that made web technology free for everyone to use, CERN is starting a project to restore the first website and to preserve the digital assets that are associated with the birth of the web. To learn more about the project and the first website, visit http://info.cern.ch

CERN turns 60, celebrates peaceful collaboration for science

Today, CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, is blowing out 60 candles at an event attended by official delegations from 35 countries. Founded in 1954, CERN is today the largest particle physics laboratory in the world and a prime example of international collaboration, bringing together scientists of almost 100 nationalities.

CERN’s origins can be traced back to the late 1940s. In the aftermath of the Second World War, a small group of visionary scientists and public administrators, on both sides of the Atlantic, identified fundamental research as a potential vehicle to rebuild the continent and to foster peace in a troubled region. It was from these ideas that CERN was born on 29 September 1954, with a dual mandate to provide excellent science, and to bring nations together. This blueprint for collaboration has worked remarkably well over the years and expanded to all the continents.

“For six decades, CERN has been a place where people can work together, regardless of their culture and nationality. We form a bridge between cultures by speaking a single universal language and that language is science,” said CERN Director-General Rolf Heuer. “Indeed, science is an essential part of culture. Maestro Ashkenazy, conducting the European Union Youth Orchestra here today puts it most eloquently in saying that while music reflects the reality of our spiritual life and tries to convey to us the essence of our existence, science’s mission is extremely similar; it also tries to explain the world to us.”

CERN came into being on 29 September 1954 when its convention, agreed by 12 founding Member States, came into force. Over the years and with its continuing success, CERN has attracted new countries and become a truly global organization, Today it has 21 Member States and more than 10,000 users from all over the world, and more countries have applied for membership.

“Over time, CERN has become the world’s leading laboratory in particle physics, always oriented towards, and achieving, excellence,” said President of CERN Council Agnieszka Zalewska.

CERN’s business is fundamental physics, aiming to find out what the universe is made of and how it works. Since 1954, the landscape of fundamental physics has dramatically changed. Then, knowledge of matter at the smallest scales was limited to the atom of the nucleus. In 60 years, particle physicists have advanced knowledge of forces and matter at the smallest scales, developed a sound theory based on this knowledge – the Standard model – and improved the understanding of the universe and its beginnings.

Over the years, physicists working at CERN have contributed to this progress as a series of larger and ever more powerful accelerators have allowed researchers to explore new frontiers of energy. Among the many results achieved, some discoveries have dramatically improved comprehension of the fundamental laws of nature and pushed forward technologies. These include the discovery of the particle carriers of the weak force, rewarded with a Nobel Prize for Carlo Rubbia and Simon van der Meer in 1984, the invention of the World Wide Web by Tim Berners-Lee in 1989, the development of a revolutionary particle detector by Georges Charpak, rewarded by a Nobel Prize in 1992, and the discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012, proving the existence of the Brout-Englert-Higgs mechanism, which led to a Nobel Prize for Peter Higgs and François Englert in 2013.

Today CERN operates the world’s leading particle accelerator, the Large Hadron Collider. With the restart of the LHC next year at new record energy, CERN will continue to seek answers to some of the most fundamental questions about the universe.


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