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EDITORIALS & OPINIONS OF THE WEEK:
(Mini Reads followed by Full news commentary)


FROM THE MALAYA

By BERNARD KARGANILLA - THE WORLD WE LIVE IN
[THUS, we, Pope Francis and Patriarch Kirill of Moscow and All Russia, “urge the international community to seek an end to the violence and terrorism and, at the same time, to contribute through dialogue to a swift return to civil peace.”]


FEBRUARY 18 -By Bernard Karganilla THUS, we, Pope Francis and Patriarch Kirill of Moscow and All Russia, “urge the international community to seek an end to the violence and terrorism and, at the same time, to contribute through dialogue to a swift return to civil peace.” The Bishop of Rome and the Russian Orthodox Patriarch, meeting in Cuba (the first in nearly a millennium between the heads of two branches of the Christian church), also exhorted “all Christians and all believers of God to pray fervently to the providential Creator of the world to protect His creation from destruction and not permit a new world war.”  Agreed. Truly tragic if the Humans destroy their only home, a planet whose beauty is vividly captured by the cameras of Sebastião Salgado, Steve McCurry, Robert Polidori, Edward Burtynsky and Annie Leibovitz. What waste, hence, we must hasten to view a specially curated exhibition that portrays how the five contemporary photographers document and interpret the world. Until March 27, 2016, Sundaram Tagore Gallery and Collective 88 present “The World We Live In: Through the Lens of Contemporary Photography” at the Ayala Museum in Makati. Here and now, we get to see Sebastião Salgado’s “The Eastern Part of the Brooks Range, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, USA” (2009, gelatin silver print, 68 x 50 inches): Salgado shares with Steve McCurry a photojournalistic approach, recording human struggle and the impact of conflict and globalization. That struggle is made more intense by the issue of unsustainable fishing practices that not only harm the marine environment but also threaten the country’s food supply. READ MORE...

ALSO: By Nestor Mata -CHINA’S EMPIRE BUILDING IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA
[And so, the question now is whether American diplomacy can truly pivot to Asia and make this rapidly deteriorating situation right, and whether Washington and its Asian allies are prepared to give the Chinese hegemony its due. A good place to start is with an intensive discussion about China’s empire building in the disputed parts of the South China Sea.]


FEBRUARY 18 -By Nestor Mata
CHINA is empire building in the South China Sea, and unless the United States and its Asian allies act quickly, Beijing would effectively transform it into a “China lake”! This startling revelation was voiced by Peter Navarro, professor of economics and public policy at the Merage School of Business, University of California-Irvine, in an analytical article for The Globalist magazine. China, Professor Navarro then noted, has been building for years “a string of artificial island garrisons, equipped with airstrips, helipads, sophisticated missile-guiding telemetry and submarine-tracking sonar, and that these fortress garrisons represent a critical cog in a coercive military machine designed to prosecute Beijing’s sweeping revanchist claim to 90% of the South China Sea.” He was referring to China’s claim based on its controversial “nine-dash line”, which is known derisively in Asia as “The Cow’s Tongue” for its shape, based on ancient – that is, revanchist – historical rights. “If Beijing is allowed to enforce its claim, this would not just transfer to China untold natural resource wealth from Asian countries like the Philippines, Malaysia and Vietnam, but also effectively run the US navy out of the Asia-Pacific region,” Prof. Navarro pointed out. “China is not just pressing its claim, it is also using a clever and coercive ‘salami slicing’ strategy to seize territory.” To understand just how expansive China’s nine-dash line claim is, he went on, consider Indonesia’s East Natuna natural gas field which is clearly within Indonesia’s 200-mile Exclusive Economic Zone under the Law of the Sea, while China’s mainland is almost 1,000 miles away. READ MORE...

ALSO: By Ellen Tordesillas -PACQUIAO’S ‘ABHORRENT’ REMARKS COULD BE BLESSING IN DISGUISE
[Why, if Pacquiao didn’t malign the LGBTs, were Abunda and Vice Ganda considering voting for him for senator? Some may be duped by this tale about Pacquaio’s generosity. But it’s not his personal money that was used to build the houses for his Saranggani constituents. It’s the Filipino people’s money that he collected as congressman without even working for it. Pacquaio went into politics with a distorted sense of public service. In an interview with him in 2010 when he was running for Saranggani congressman, I asked him why he had to be a congressman to help the people when he was already doing it without being in government. He replied: “Pera ko ang ginagastos ko. Kawawa naman ang pamilya ko. Mauubos ang pera ko.” ]


FEBRUARY 19 -By Ellen Tordesillas
TWO days after boxing icon Manny Pacquiao rebuked same-sex couples as worse than animals, shoe giant Nike dropped him as endorser. That was fast. Observers said that was an easy decision for Nike because Pacquiao, 37, is in the sunset of his career after losing in two career-defining fights: the one against Floyd Mayweather in May 2015 and earlier, in December 2013, to Juan Manuel Marquez. He says his April 9 fight with Timothy Bradley would be his last, although he has said it before with his other fights and went on to do more. Nike’s announcement: “We find Manny Pacquiao’s comments abhorrent. Nike strongly opposes discrimination of any kind and has a long history of supporting and standing up for the rights of the LGBT community. We no longer have a relationship with Manny Pacquiao.” It’s a knockout punch for Pacquiao whose endorsements make up the bulk of his boxing earnings. His camp is worried, we are told, that other sponsors might follow Nike. Although Pacquiao, a senatorial candidate under the United Nationalist Alliance, said he remains against same-sex marriage despite his apology, he must be regretting what he told News5 last Monday. It was a standard question asked of every candidate running for a national position. Pacquiao said: “As Christian, bawal naman ‘yung same-sex marriage. Ginawa ang babae para sa lalaki, ginawa ang lalaki para sa babae. Kasi para sa akin ito lang, common sense lang. Makakita ka ba ng any animals na lalaki sa lalaki o babae sa babae? Mas mabuti pa ‘yung hayop. Marunong kumikilala, kung lalaki o lalaki, babae, babae. Ngayon kung lalaki sa lalaki, babae sa babae, mas masahol pa sa hayop ang tao.” READ MORE...

ALSO: EDITORIAL- CLOSE TO MIDNIGHT
[The President and other officials are prohibited, under the Omnibus Election Code, to appoint new employees, create new positions, promotion, or give salary increases and transfer officers and employees in the civil service 45 days before a regular election. Did the President forget that there is an existing Comelec rule on displacement and shuffling of personnel within the election period?]


FEBRUARY 19 -GOING by reports of impetuously rush decisions and railroaded light rail maintenance contracts, it would seem that in the dying days of the Benigno Aquino III administration, the government is willing to take the risk of bending some rules and parrying public criticisms just so it can have its way with important projects that need to be implemented before it says goodbye. In ordinary street parlance, they call these midnight deals. The three-year maintenance contract for the Metro Rail Transit Line 3 (MRT 3) with the joint venture of Busan Transportation Corp. and three other corporations was recently signed, after attempts to bid out this service contract in September 2014 and January 2015 apparently failed. The closing of the contract came after the DOTC resorted to alternative mode of procurement as allowed by law, specifically the Government Procurement Reform Act of 2003, which is by invitation under a negotiated deal. Even after the signing of the contract, winning proponent Busan Transportation reportedly has reservations on its working arrangements with the MRT. We can just pray that the new maintenance service contractor can make the trains run on schedule and keep them away from breakdowns. READ MORE

ALSO: EDITORIAL - ACID TEST FOR ASPIRING LEADERS


FEBRUARY 20 -CARTOON COURTESY OF JAPAN TIMES ALL presidential aspirants and their running mates would have to go back to the drawing board to refine their national security and diplomatic platforms on the West Philippine Sea after China’s Valentine’s Day surprise. The satellite image of two batteries of surface-to-air missiles each containing eight launchers erected within a week on Woody Island in the Paracel Islands changes the backdrop of the disputed territory. It removes any doubt that Beijing has no intention of honoring its word not to militarize the contested area regardless of the verbal commitments it made just weeks ago to the United States and other concerned states in the region. While Woody Island is not covered by the Philippines claim, China’s latest maneuver effectively sets the tone for its calculated escalation of the controversy. For now it is the problem of rival claimants Vietnam and Taiwan and other countries in interest. So far as our defense officials know, no weapon has yet been deployed on any of the artificial islands hewn in recent months by Chinese reclamation activities on our territorial waters. READ MORE...


READ FULL MEDIA REPORTS HERE:

THE WORLD WE LIVE IN


By Bernard Karganilla

MANILA, FEBRUARY 22, 2016 (MALAYA) By Bernard Karganilla February 18, 2016 THUS, we, Pope Francis and Patriarch Kirill of Moscow and All Russia, “urge the international community to seek an end to the violence and terrorism and, at the same time, to contribute through dialogue to a swift return to civil peace.” [http://en.radiovaticana.va/news/2016/02/12/joint_declaration_of_pope_francis_and_patriarch_kirill/1208117]

The Bishop of Rome and the Russian Orthodox Patriarch, meeting in Cuba (the first in nearly a millennium between the heads of two branches of the Christian church), also exhorted “all Christians and all believers of God to pray fervently to the providential Creator of the world to protect His creation from destruction and not permit a new world war.”

Agreed. Truly tragic if the Humans destroy their only home, a planet whose beauty is vividly captured by the cameras of Sebastião Salgado, Steve McCurry, Robert Polidori, Edward Burtynsky and Annie Leibovitz. What waste, hence, we must hasten to view a specially curated exhibition that portrays how the five contemporary photographers document and interpret the world.

Until March 27, 2016, Sundaram Tagore Gallery and Collective 88 present “The World We Live In: Through the Lens of Contemporary Photography” at the Ayala Museum in Makati. Here and now, we get to see Sebastião Salgado’s “The Eastern Part of the Brooks Range, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, USA” (2009, gelatin silver print, 68 x 50 inches):

Salgado shares with Steve McCurry a photojournalistic approach, recording human struggle and the impact of conflict and globalization. That struggle is made more intense by the issue of unsustainable fishing practices that not only harm the marine environment but also threaten the country’s food supply.

READ MORE...

Calling attention to this problem, Greenpeace Southeast Asia, Meliomar Inc., the Philippine Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources, eight hotels (Fairmont Hotel, Hyatt City of Dreams Manila, Marco Polo Ortigas, Marriott Manila Hotel, The Peninsula Manila, Shangri-La Hotels, Fairmont Raffles, New World Makati), three establishments (Le Club, Lulu Hooch, Vask), a private consulting company (Blueyou) and four other NGOs (Disciples Escoffier International Asia, Centre for Sustainability, PEMSEA, RARE Fish Forever) are holding the first-ever Sustainable Seafood Week in Rizal’s homeland.


FACEBOOK PHOTO COVER

Not only is this a celebration of food and venue for sharing best practices but also a commitment to “preserve the raw products of the Philippines and this includes the local seafood,” according to Chef Chele Gonzalez of Gallery Vask. You can join them this February 15 to 21: environmental presentations, chef classes and technical workshops on sustainable seafood. [www.facebook.com/SustainableSeafoodWeekph]

What a world we live in. One can enjoy Salgado’s “Iceberg between Paulet Island and the South Shetland Islands in the Weddell Sea, Antarctic Peninsula” (2005, gelatin silver print, 36 x 50 inches) at the Ayala Museum:

Yet one must also take note of an American official’s warning that any move by China to fly jet fighters from runways on its new man-made islands in the disputed South China Sea would be destabilizing. “We are unsure where they are taking us,” Vice Admiral Joseph Aucoin (Commander of the U.S. Navy’s Seventh Fleet) told journalists in Singapore. [https://sg.news.yahoo.com/u-admiral-warns-against-chinese-fighter-flights-south-115946430.html]

What a world to live in.

A day before Valentine’s, representatives of the City of Manila, masteral students of the University of the Philippines Manila and the Australian Ambassador joined survivors of World War II in Memorare-Manila 1945 Foundation’s commemoration of the 71st anniversary of the Battle for the Liberation of Manila at the Intramuros in Manila.

One can recall the war crimes committed by Hirohito’s imperial army in the Philippines: “MANILA, Nov. 07. A Sydney-born newspaper correspondent, Henry Keys, at the trial of General Yamashita to-day described how in the convent of the St. Augustine Church he saw a beautiful Filipino girl whose feet had been cut off by the Japanese with a bayonet. The girl said to him:

‘Look what the Japanese have done to me.’ As she was carried to safety, she gave the V-sign to the advancing American troops. Keys said that he saw hundreds of bodies of civilians piled around the St. Augustine Church courtyard on February 23. He also saw the body of a small boy who had been shot through the back of the head as he knelt in the church.” [The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW), Thursday, 08 November 1945, page 3]

Such is Earth, your world.


CHINA’S EMPIRE BUILDING IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA By NESTOR MATA February 18, 2016


By Nestor Mata

CHINA is empire building in the South China Sea, and unless the United States and its Asian allies act quickly, Beijing would effectively transform it into a “China lake”!

This startling revelation was voiced by Peter Navarro, professor of economics and public policy at the Merage School of Business, University of California-Irvine, in an analytical article for The Globalist magazine.

China, Professor Navarro then noted, has been building for years “a string of artificial island garrisons, equipped with airstrips, helipads, sophisticated missile-guiding telemetry and submarine-tracking sonar, and that these fortress garrisons represent a critical cog in a coercive military machine designed to prosecute Beijing’s sweeping revanchist claim to 90% of the South China Sea.” He was referring to China’s claim based on its controversial “nine-dash line”, which is known derisively in Asia as “The Cow’s Tongue” for its shape, based on ancient – that is, revanchist – historical rights.

“If Beijing is allowed to enforce its claim, this would not just transfer to China untold natural resource wealth from Asian countries like the Philippines, Malaysia and Vietnam, but also effectively run the US navy out of the Asia-Pacific region,” Prof. Navarro pointed out. “China is not just pressing its claim, it is also using a clever and coercive ‘salami slicing’ strategy to seize territory.”

To understand just how expansive China’s nine-dash line claim is, he went on, consider Indonesia’s East Natuna natural gas field which is clearly within Indonesia’s 200-mile Exclusive Economic Zone under the Law of the Sea, while China’s mainland is almost 1,000 miles away.

READ MORE...

With the absence of a credible response from the United States and its allies, he warned, “China will continue to build out its fortress garrisons, further its territorial claims, and slowly and slowly but surely salami-slice its way to control of the entire South China Sea – home one-third of all global shipping and a key gateway for the oil that lights the lamps of Asia.”

Sadly, a credible U.S, response is doubtful, much to the increasing consternation of its allies in Asia, Prof. Navarro admitted. “The abiding geopolitical fact here is that when Beijing’s military strategists assess the probability of a credible US pushback, all they see are the war-weary American public that can’t point to the South China Sea on a map and continues to finance China by buying ‘Made-in-China’ products; a rapidly shrinking US naval fleet without sufficient ships to its ‘Talk Loudly, Carry a Weak Stick’ protests; a growing arsenal of China’s own weapons increasingly capable of neutralizing US power, while successfully bullying weak neighbors; and a series of presidential election debates in the US that have focused on everything but Chinese aggression.”

And so, the question now is whether American diplomacy can truly pivot to Asia and make this rapidly deteriorating situation right, and whether Washington and its Asian allies are prepared to give the Chinese hegemony its due. A good place to start is with an intensive discussion about China’s empire building in the disputed parts of the South China Sea.

***

In the face of China’s assertiveness in the South China Sea, President Barack Obama hosted a special summit with Southeast Asian leaders in Sunnylands Center in Rancho Mirage, California.

The significance of the summit from February 15 to 16 lies in what it means for the current and future place of Southeast Asia and members of the ASEAN.

As geopolitical observers put it, the meeting was, for the United States, “a powerful symbol” of its commitment to Southeast Asia. For ASEAN, it demonstrated its importance in tackling regional and global challenges.

While the Obama years saw a strong commitment to Southeast Asia and ASEAN, they pointed out, there is no guarantee that any of the US presidential candidates – with the exception of Hillary Clinton, the first secretary of state to visit all ten ASEAN countries – would necessarily demonstrate the same regard for them.

That would surely be a tragic mistake, given ASEAN’s growing clout in the sub-region.

***

Quote of the Day: “We have before us the opportunity to forge for ourselves and future generations a new world order, a world where the rule of law, not of the jungle, governs the conduct of nations.” – Anonymous


PACQUIAO’S ‘ABHORRENT’ REMARKS COULD BE BLESSING IN DISGUISE By Ellen Tordesillas February 19, 2016


By Ellen Tordesillas

TWO days after boxing icon Manny Pacquiao rebuked same-sex couples as worse than animals, shoe giant Nike dropped him as endorser.

That was fast.

Observers said that was an easy decision for Nike because Pacquiao, 37, is in the sunset of his career after losing in two career-defining fights: the one against Floyd Mayweather in May 2015 and earlier, in December 2013, to Juan Manuel Marquez. He says his April 9 fight with Timothy Bradley would be his last, although he has said it before with his other fights and went on to do more.

Nike’s announcement: “We find Manny Pacquiao’s comments abhorrent. Nike strongly opposes discrimination of any kind and has a long history of supporting and standing up for the rights of the LGBT community. We no longer have a relationship with Manny Pacquiao.”

It’s a knockout punch for Pacquiao whose endorsements make up the bulk of his boxing earnings. His camp is worried, we are told, that other sponsors might follow Nike.

Although Pacquiao, a senatorial candidate under the United Nationalist Alliance, said he remains against same-sex marriage despite his apology, he must be regretting what he told News5 last Monday. It was a standard question asked of every candidate running for a national position.

Pacquiao said: “As Christian, bawal naman ‘yung same-sex marriage. Ginawa ang babae para sa lalaki, ginawa ang lalaki para sa babae. Kasi para sa akin ito lang, common sense lang. Makakita ka ba ng any animals na lalaki sa lalaki o babae sa babae? Mas mabuti pa ‘yung hayop. Marunong kumikilala, kung lalaki o lalaki, babae, babae. Ngayon kung lalaki sa lalaki, babae sa babae, mas masahol pa sa hayop ang tao.”

READ MORE...

The reactions from the LGBT (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender) community and their supporters were swift and emotional. Prominent gay celebrities like Vice Ganda and Boy Abunda issued statements that matched Pacquiao’s acidic quotes.

Abunda said “Sino ka para manghusga? Saan ka kumuha ng kapangyarihan para tawagin kami na mas masahol pa kaysa sa mga hayop?”

Abunda and Vice Ganda said they are not voting for Pacquiao for the Senate. Abunda threw back to the boxer his “common sense” punch line: “Palagay mo ba iboboto ko ang isang tao na ang tingin sa akin ay hindi isang tao? Iboboto ko ba ang isang tao na ang tingin sa akin ay mas masahol pa sa hayop?

Why, if Pacquiao didn’t malign the LGBTs, were Abunda and Vice Ganda considering voting for him for senator?

This controversy over Paquiao’s “abhorrent” comments, to borrow from Nike, might yet turn out to be a blessing in disguise.

Pacquiao is considered a sure winner for senator in the May elections. All surveys put him within the Magic 12 even when he is not campaigning so much because he is busy preparing for his April fight with Bradley.

Voters will send him to the Senate despite the fact that his performance as congressman was dismal. He was a perennial absentee in Congress. In 2014, he only attended four, as in 1,2,3,4 sessions. A Philippine Star report said he has filed about a dozen bills but none has passed any of the committees they have been referred to, the first hurdle in the legislative mill.

Yet he collects all the emoluments due a member of Congress which runs into millions of pesos without giving the taxpayers the service due them. That is theft.

Pacquaio went into politics with a distorted sense of public service. In an interview with him in 2010 when he was running for Saranggani congressman, I asked him why he had to be a congressman to help the people when he was already doing it without being in government.

He replied: “Pera ko ang ginagastos ko. Kawawa naman ang pamilya ko. Mauubos ang pera ko.”

A Feb. 14 post in his Facebook page showed a row of low-cost houses captioned: “I’m so happy giving this (sic) houses free to my constituents in Sarangani Province from my own pocket more than thousand families are the beneficiaries. And I’m still building more because i always believe what the Bible says; 1 Peter 4:8-10 NIV.”

Some may be duped by this tale about Pacquaio’s generosity. But it’s not his personal money that was used to build the houses for his Saranggani constituents. It’s the Filipino people’s money that he collected as congressman without even working for it.

That way, he can continue to be “generous” at hindi mauubos ang pera niya.

If this controversy would make many people not vote for Pacquiao, then, we can only quote from Romans 11:33: “O the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and knowledge of God! how unsearchable are his judgments, and his ways past finding out!”


EDITORIAL: CLOSE TO MIDNIGHT February 19, 2016

GOING by reports of impetuously rush decisions and railroaded light rail maintenance contracts, it would seem that in the dying days of the Benigno Aquino III administration, the government is willing to take the risk of bending some rules and parrying public criticisms just so it can have its way with important projects that need to be implemented before it says goodbye.

In ordinary street parlance, they call these midnight deals.

The three-year maintenance contract for the Metro Rail Transit Line 3 (MRT 3) with the joint venture of Busan Transportation Corp. and three other corporations was recently signed, after attempts to bid out this service contract in September 2014 and January 2015 apparently failed.

The closing of the contract came after the DOTC resorted to alternative mode of procurement as allowed by law, specifically the Government Procurement Reform Act of 2003, which is by invitation under a negotiated deal.

Even after the signing of the contract, winning proponent Busan Transportation reportedly has reservations on its working arrangements with the MRT. We can just pray that the new maintenance service contractor can make the trains run on schedule and keep them away from breakdowns.

READ MORE...

Critics in media claimed that the failed efforts to bid out the MRT maintenance contract for two years were planned, so that the emergency mode of gifting the contract could be used. We hope this isn’t true.

In keeping with the Palace’s desire to push more midnight accomplishments is the move to merge the Development Bank of the Philippines with Land Bank, to create the country’s second biggest bank with the Land Bank as the surviving entity.

The merger was approved thru Executive Order 198 signed by President Aquino recently, and PNoy said it would fulfill the two banks’ “mandate of providing banking services to propel countryside development and to contribute to sustainable and inclusive growth.”

This merger, while approved earlier by Congress, still strikes notes of apprehension because of the lack of advance notices to the Monetary Board and the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas, to the officials of the two banks, and the Governance Commission for Government-Owned and Controlled Corporations (GCG) which tasked to implement the merger.

GCG Chairman Cesar Villanueva said they would need at least 6 months to effect such merger, and Bangko Sentral Gov. Amando Tetangco said just like regular banks, Land Bank and DBP need to apply for formal merger.

It is right to ask -- why the haste when the presidential election is just 80 days ahead?

The President and other officials are prohibited, under the Omnibus Election Code, to appoint new employees, create new positions, promotion, or give salary increases and transfer officers and employees in the civil service 45 days before a regular election.

Did the President forget that there is an existing Comelec rule on displacement and shuffling of personnel within the election period?

Aquino himself won his Supreme Court case against the midnight appointments made by President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, and he should learn from the lesson of midnight deals being shot down by the highest court of the land.


EDITORIAL: ACID TEST FOR ASPIRING LEADERS February 18, 2016


CARTOON COURTESY OF JAPAN TIMES

ALL presidential aspirants and their running mates would have to go back to the drawing board to refine their national security and diplomatic platforms on the West Philippine Sea after China’s Valentine’s Day surprise.

The satellite image of two batteries of surface-to-air missiles each containing eight launchers erected within a week on Woody Island in the Paracel Islands changes the backdrop of the disputed territory.

It removes any doubt that Beijing has no intention of honoring its word not to militarize the contested area regardless of the verbal commitments it made just weeks ago to the United States and other concerned states in the region.

While Woody Island is not covered by the Philippines claim, China’s latest maneuver effectively sets the tone for its calculated escalation of the controversy. For now it is the problem of rival claimants Vietnam and Taiwan and other countries in interest.

So far as our defense officials know, no weapon has yet been deployed on any of the artificial islands hewn in recent months by Chinese reclamation activities on our territorial waters.

READ MORE...

But sooner or later, the Philippines will have to confront the probability that China is considering similar moves in the Spratlys.

Each missile has a reported range of 200 kilometers. If any of those is placed in position in any of the reclaimed islands, it will drastically change the nature of the dispute, removing freedom of navigation and over-flight off the table.

Whether we want to or not, we have to respond in kind.

Two of our leading presidential candidates have espoused bilateral dialogues with China to settle the dispute. They will have to defend such views before the voting public in the face of its renewed aggressiveness.

More to the point, will such stand be acceptable to the Filipino voters or will they be seen to fail the assay? – PT.


Chief News Editor: Sol Jose Vanzi

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