VATICAN CITY, MARCH 13, 2013 (GUARDIAN-UK) By Paul Owen and Tom McCarthy, guardian.co.uk

[This Aug. 7, 2009 file photo shows Argentina's Cardinal Jorge Bergoglio, right, giving a mass outside San Cayetano church in Buenos Aires. Bergoglio, who took the name of Pope Francis, was elected on Wednesday, March 13, 2013 the 266th pontiff of the Roman Catholic Church. (AP Photo/Natacha Pisarenko, files]

The Guardian's Giles Tremlett points to further reporting that Bergoglio was runner-up in 2005:

Bergoglio came second in 2005 when Joseph Ratzinger became pope, according to the alleged diary of one of the cardinals who was present.

That diary was published in 2005 by Limes, a serious Italian magazine, which did not identify the cardinal. It said that Bergoglio came second by 84 votes to 26 in the final vote in 2005.

Although he is considered orthodox on doctrine, Bergoglio is apparently flexible on sexual doctrine and, in private, joked "they want to stick the whole world inside a condom".

The Guardian's Miriam Elder sends along a short statement from the Russian Orthodox Church, which has had an often conflicted relationship with the Vatican:

"The Russian Orthodox Church hopes to maintain the positive dynamics in relations under the new Pope," the church said in a statement.


New York magazine's Kevin Roose breaks down the Roman Catholic Church's financial empire:

The new pope, who is being elected at a conclave that began today, will not only take control of one of the world's major religions; he will also oversee a massive religious business whose holdings are worth billions of dollars, but whose finances on a yearly basis are often rocky.[...]

I made a chart containing the net surpluses and deficits for both the Holy See and the Vatican City government from 2005 to 2011, the last year for which data are publicly available. The blue line represents the Holy See, and the red line represents the Vatican City government.

As you can see, both the Holy See and the Vatican City government have been struggling financially in recent years, though the Vatican City government has recovered from its low point, while the Holy See has not.

The new pope, Jorge Mario Bergoglio, now Francis I, was runner-up in the 2005 conclave. The National Catholic Reporter profiled Bergoglio at the start of the month:

After the dust settled from the election of Benedict XVI, various reports identified the Argentine Jesuit as the main challenger to then-Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger. One cardinal later said the conclave had been "something of a horse race" between Ratzinger and Bergoglio, and an anonymous conclave diary splashed across the Italian media in September 2005 claimed that Bergoglio received 40 votes on the third ballot, just before Ratzinger crossed the two-thirds threshold and became pope.

Though it's hard to say how seriously one should take the specifics, the general consensus is that Bergoglio was indeed the "runner-up" last time around. He appealed to conservatives in the College of Cardinals as a man who had held the line against liberalizing currents among the Jesuits, and to moderates as a symbol of the church's commitment to the developing world.


[Cardinal Jorge Mario Bergoglio of Buenos Aires, Argentina]

Profile: New pope, Jesuit Bergoglio, was runner-up in 2005 conclave |

Rome -- In the days leading up to the conclave, John Allen offered a profile each day of one of the most frequently touted papabili, or men who could be pope. On March 3, he profiled Cardinal Jorge Mario Bergoglio, who was elected March 13 to be Pope Francis. Here is the profile Allen wrote:

While there are still no tracking polls to establish who's got legs as a papal candidate, the 2013 conclave at least has one objective measure not available in 2005: past performance. Many of the cardinals seen as candidates now were also on offer the last time around, and someone who had traction eight years ago could be a contender again.

By that measure alone, Cardinal Jorge Mario Bergoglio of Buenos Aires, Argentina, at least merits a look.

After the dust settled from the election of Benedict XVI, various reports identified the Argentine Jesuit as the main challenger to then-Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger. One cardinal later said the conclave had been "something of a horse race" between Ratzinger and Bergoglio, and an anonymous conclave diary splashed across the Italian media in September 2005 claimed that Bergoglio received 40 votes on the third ballot, just before Ratzinger crossed the two-thirds threshold and became pope.

Though it's hard to say how seriously one should take the specifics, the general consensus is that Bergoglio was indeed the "runner-up" last time around. He appealed to conservatives in the College of Cardinals as a man who had held the line against liberalizing currents among the Jesuits, and to moderates as a symbol of the church's commitment to the developing world.

Support NCR's coverage of the conclave. Donate now! .. Back in 2005, Bergoglio drew high marks as an accomplished intellectual, having studied theology in Germany. His leading role during the Argentine economic crisis burnished his reputation as a voice of conscience, and made him a potent symbol of the costs globalization can impose on the world's poor.

Bergoglio's reputation for personal simplicity also exercised an undeniable appeal – a Prince of the Church who chose to live in a simple apartment rather than the archbishop's palace, who gave up his chauffeured limousine in favor of taking the bus to work, and who cooked his own meals.

Another measure of Bergoglio's seriousness as a candidate was the negative campaigning that swirled around him eight years ago.

Three days before the 2005 conclave, a human rights lawyer in Argentina filed a complaint charging Bergoglio with complicity in the 1976 kidnapping of two liberal Jesuit priests under the country's military regime, a charge Bergoglio flatly denied. There was also an e-mail campaign, claiming to originate with fellow Jesuits who knew Bergoglio when he was the provincial of the order in Argentina, asserting that "he never smiled."

All of that by way of saying, Bergoglio was definitely on the radar screen. Of course he's eight years older now, and at 76 is probably outside the age window many cardinals would see as ideal. Further, the fact he couldn't get over the hump last time may convince some cardinals there's no point going back to the well.

That said, many of the reasons that led members of the college to take him seriously eight years ago are still in place.

Born in Buenos Aires in 1936, Bergoglio's father was an Italian immigrant and railway worker from the region around Turin, and he has four brothers and sisters. His original plan was to be a chemist, but in 1958 he instead entered the Society of Jesus and began studies for the priesthood. He spent much of his early career teaching literature, psychology and philosophy, and early on he was seen as a rising star. From 1973 to 1979 he served as the Jesuit provincial in Argentina, then in 1980 became the rector of the seminary from which he had graduated.

These were the years of the military junta in Argentina, when many priests, including leading Jesuits, were gravitating towards the progressive liberation theology movement. As the Jesuit provincial, Bergoglio insisted on a more traditional reading of Ignatian spirituality, mandating that Jesuits continue to staff parishes and act as chaplains rather than moving into "base communities" and political activism.

Although Jesuits generally are discouraged from receiving ecclesiastical honors and advancement, especially outside mission countries, Bergoglio was named auxiliary bishop of Buenos Aires in 1992 and then succeeded the ailing Cardinal Antonio Quarracino in 1998. John Paul II made Bergoglio a cardinal in 2001, assigning him the Roman church named after the legendary Jesuit St. Robert Bellarmino.

Over the years, Bergoglio became close to the Comunione e Liberazione movement founded by Italian Fr. Luigi Giussani, sometimes speaking at its massive annual gathering in Rimini, Italy. He's also presented Giussani's books at literary fairs in Argentina. This occasionally generated consternation within the Jesuits, since the ciellini once upon a time were seen as the main opposition to Bergoglio's fellow Jesuit in Milan, Cardinal Carlo Maria Martini.

On the other hand, that's also part of Bergoglio's appeal, someone who personally straddles the divide between the Jesuits and the ciellini, and more broadly, between liberals and conservatives in the church.

Bergoglio has supported the social justice ethos of Latin American Catholicism, including a robust defense of the poor.

"We live in the most unequal part of the world, which has grown the most yet reduced misery the least," Bergoglio said during a gathering of Latin American bishops in 2007. "The unjust distribution of goods persists, creating a situation of social sin that cries out to Heaven and limits the possibilities of a fuller life for so many of our brothers."

At the same time, he has generally tended to accent growth in personal holiness over efforts for structural reform.

Bergoglio is seen an unwaveringly orthodox on matters of sexual morality, staunchly opposing abortion, same-sex marriage, and contraception. In 2010 he asserted that gay adoption is a form of discrimination against children, earning a public rebuke from Argentina's President, Cristina Fernández de Kirchner.

Nevertheless, he has shown deep compassion for the victims of HIV-AIDS; in 2001, he visited a hospice to kiss and wash the feet of 12 AIDS patients.

Bergoglio also won high marks for his compassionate response to the 1994 bombing in Buenos Aires of a seven-story building housing the Argentine Jewish Mutual Association and the Delegation of the Argentine Jewish Association. It was one of the worst anti-Jewish attacks ever in Latin America, and in 2005 Rabbi Joseph Ehrenkranz of the Center for Christian-Jewish Understanding at Sacred Heart University in Fairfield, Connecticut, praised Bergoglio's leadership.

"He was very concerned with what happened, Ehrenkranz said. "He's got experience."

Nevertheless, after the conclave of 2005 some cardinals candidly admitted to doubts that Bergoglio really had the steel and "fire in the belly" needed to lead the universal church. Moreover, for most of the non-Latin Americans, Bergoglio was an unknown quantity. A handful remembered his leadership in the 2001 Synod of Bishops, when Bergoglio replaced Cardinal Edward Egan of New York as the relator, or chairman, of the meeting after Egan went home to help New Yorkers cope with the 9/11 terrorist attacks. In that setting, Bergoglio left a basically positive but indistinct impression.

Bergoglio may be basically conservative on many issues, but he's no defender of clerical privilege, or insensitive to pastoral realities. In September 2012, he delivered a blistering attack on priests who refuse to baptize children born out of wedlock, calling it a form of "rigorous and hypocritical neo-clericalism."

The case for Bergoglio in 2013 rests on four points.

First and most basically, he had strong support last time around, and some cardinals may think that they're getting another bite at the apple now.

Second, Bergoglio is a candidates who brings together the first world and the developing world in his own person. He's a Latin American with Italian roots, who studied in Germany. As a Jesuit he's a member of a truly international religious community, and his ties to Comunione e Liberazione make him part of another global network.

Third, Bergoglio still has appeal across the usual divides in the church, drawing respect from both conservatives and moderates for his keen pastoral sense, his intelligence, and his personal modesty. He's also seen as a genuinely spiritual soul, and a man of deep prayer.

"Only someone who has encountered mercy, who has been caressed by the tenderness of mercy, is happy and comfortable with the Lord," Bergoglio said in 2001. "I beg the theologians who are present not to turn me in to the Sant'Uffizio or the Inquisition; however, forcing things a bit, I dare to say that the privileged locus of the encounter is the caress of the mercy of Jesus Christ on my sin."

Fourth, he's also seen as a successful evangelist.

"We have to avoid the spiritual sickness of a self-referential church," Bergoglio said recently. "It's true that when you get out into the street, as happens to every man and woman, there can be accidents. However, if the church remains closed in on itself, self-referential, it gets old. Between a church that suffers accidents in the street, and a church that's sick because it's self-referential, I have no doubts about preferring the former."

On the other hand, there are compelling reasons to believe that Bergoglio's window of opportunity to be pope has already closed.

First, he's eight years older than in 2005, and at 76 he would only be two years younger than Benedict XVI was when he became pope. Especially on the heels of a papal resignation on the basis of age and exhaustion, many cardinals may balk at electing someone that old, fearing it would set the church up for another shock to the system.

Second, although Bergoglio was a serious contender in 2005, he couldn't attract sufficient support to get past the two-thirds threshold needed to be elected pope. Especially for the 50 cardinals who were inside the conclave eight years ago, they may be skeptical that the results would be any different this time around.

Third, the doubts that circulated about Bergoglio's toughness eight years ago may arguably be even more damaging now, given that the ability to govern. and to take control of the Vatican bureaucracy, seems to figure even more prominently on many cardinals' wish lists this time. Although Bergoglio is a member of several Vatican departments, including the Congregations for Divine Worship and for Clergy, he's never actually worked inside the Vatican, and there may be concerns about his capacity to take the place in hand.

Fourth, there's the standard ambivalence about Jesuits in high office, both from within the order and among some on the outside. That may have been a factor in slowing Bergoglio's progress last time, and nothing has changed the calculus in the time since.

Whether Bergoglio catches fire again as a candidate remains to be seen; one Italian writer quoted an anonymous cardinal on March 2 as saying, "Four years of Bergoglio would be enough to change things." Given his profile, however, Bergoglio seems destined to plan an important role in this conclave – if not as king, then as a kingmaker.

Pope Francis addresses the world's catholic faithful : Sky News


Pope Francis
Cardinal Protodeacon Jean-Louis Pierre Tauran has appeared to announce the name of the new pope. There is movement at the balcony doors. The lights seem to have come on in the room behind the balcony. There is a lot of excitement from the crowd.

The new pope emerges onto the balcony in his white robes.

'And now let's start working together, walking together in the church of Rome, which presides over all the churches', the pope says. He says he wants to pray for Benedict XVI. 'Let us pray altogether for him', Pope Francis says.

He begins to recite the Lord's prayer. He thanks the crowd for their welcome. He says the other cardinals went to the end of the world to choose a bishop. The new pope begins to speak: "Buona sera."

Here's Sam Jones on Bergoglio:

The archbishop of Buenos Aires is a Jesuit intellectual who travels by bus and has a practical approach to poverty: when he was appointed a cardinal, Bergoglio persuaded hundreds of Argentinians not to fly to Rome to celebrate with him but instead to give the money they would have spent on plane tickets to the poor. He was a fierce opponent of Argentina's decision to legalise gay marriage in 2010, arguing children need to have the right to be raised and educated by a father and a mother. He was created a cardinal by John Paul II on 21 February 2001.

The Catholic News Service reports he has chosen the name Pope Francis I. Like many Argentinians, the new pope is of Italian descent.

It's a shock decision: Jorge Mario Bergoglio of Buenos Aires. He is the first Jesuit pope of all time. It’s Jorge Mario Bergoglio of Buenos Aires, Argentina.

white smoke

[White smoke indicates a pope has been chosen this evening]

We have a pope!

It's white smoke and the bells in St Peter's Basilica are ringing.

So what happens next?

Now a candidate has been chosen, the Cardinal Dean will have asked him if he is willing to accept, and what his papal name will be. In Saturday’s Guardian, Cardinal Cormac Murphy-O'Connor, the former leader of the Catholic church in England and Wales, recalled the moment when Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger was asked if he would become pontiff:

I remember the senior cardinal going up to Cardinal Ratzinger and saying: 'Your Eminence, will you accept to be the supreme pontiff of the Catholic church?' And we all waited. He said: 'No. I can't.' And then he said: 'I accept as the will of God.' And then the cardinal said: 'What name will you take?' And he said: 'Benedict.' He must have thought about it the night before.

The name of the next pontiff will then be announced to the crowd in St Peter’s Square with the words “habemus papam” – we have a pope – followed by the pope’s name (with his first name in Latin) and then his new papal name.

After that the new pope will be brought out to greet the crowd.


The candidates for the Pope election 2013 – New Pope

* Under the terms of Pope Paul VI’s motu proprio Ingravescentem Aetatem, cardinals who have reached the age of 80 before the conclave openes have no vote in papal elections.

* There are now a total of 209 Cardinals, of whom 118 are aged under 80. Of the voting-age cardinals, 51 were appointed by Pope John Paul II, and 67 by Pope Benedict XVI.

Within the College of Cardinals, there are three categories, ranked Cardinal Bishops, then Cardinal Priests, and finally Cardinal Deacons.

Cardinals not attending the Conclave:

* 78 year-old Cardinal Julius Riyadi Darmaatmadja from Indonesia will not take part in the Conclave due to health reasons.

* The Archbishop of Edinburgh and Saint Andrews, Cardinal Keith O’Brien, resigned after allegations of “improper behavior”.

Members of the College of Cardinals qualified to vote:

Cardinals of the Order of Bishops

* Giovanni Battista Re (Italy) – born 30 January 1934 – Prefect Emeritus of the Congregation for Bishops, Cardinal 21 February 2001, Cardinal Bishop of Sabina-Poggio Mirteto since October 2002

* Tarcisio Bertone (Italy) – born 2 December 1934 – Cardinal Secretary of State and Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, Cardinal 21 October 2003, Cardinal Bishop of Frascati since May 2008

* Antonios Naguib (Egypt) – born 7 March 1935 – Patriarch Emeritus of Alexandria (Coptic Catholic Church), Cardinal 20 November 2010

* Bechara Boutros al-Rahi (Lebanon) – born 25 February 1940 – Patriarch of Antioch (Maronite Catholic Church), Cardinal 24 November 2012

Cardinals of the Order of Priests

* Godfried Danneels (Belgium) – born 5 June 1933 – Archbishop Emeritus of Mechelen-Brussels

* Joachim Meisner (Germany) – born 25 December 1933 – Archbishop of Cologne

* Nicolás de Jesús López Rodríguez (Dominican Republic) – born 31 October 1936 – Archbishop of Santo Domingo

* Roger Mahony (United States) – born 27 February 1936 – Archbishop Emeritus of Los Angeles

* Julius Riyadi Darmaatmadja (Indonesia) – born 20 December 1934 – Archbishop Emeritus of Jakarta

* Jaime Lucas Ortega y Alamino (Cuba) – born 18 October 1936 – Archbishop of San Cristóbal de la Habana

* Jean-Claude Turcotte (Canada) – born 26 June 1936 – Archbishop Emeritus of Montreal

* Vinko Puljić (Bosnia and Herzegovina) – born 8 September 1945 – Archbishop of Vrhbosna (Sarajevo)

* Juan Sandoval Íñiguez (Mexico) – born 28 March 1933 – Archbishop Emeritus of Guadalajara

* Antonio María Rouco Varela (Spain) – born 24 August 1936 – Archbishop of Madrid

* Dionigi Tettamanzi (Italy) – born 14 March 1934 – Archbishop Emeritus of Milan

* Polycarp Pengo (Tanzania) – born 5 August 1944 – Archbishop of Dar-es-Salaam

* Christoph Schönborn; OP (Austria) – born 22 January 1945 – Archbishop of Vienna

* Norberto Rivera Carrera (Mexico) – born 6 June 1942 – Archbishop of Mexico

* Francis Eugene George (United States) – born 16 January 1937 – Archbishop of Chicago

* Zenon Grocholewski (Poland) – born 11 October 1939 – Prefect of the Congregation for Catholic Education

* Crescenzio Sepe (Italy) – born 2 June 1943 – Archbishop of Naples

* Walter Kasper (Germany) – born 5 March 1933 – President Emeritus of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity

* Ivan Dias (India) – born 14 April 1936 – Prefect Emeritus of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples

* Geraldo Majella Agnelo (Brazil) – born 19 October 1933 – Archbishop Emeritus of São Salvador da Bahia

* Audrys Juozas Bačkis (Lithuania) – born 1 February 1937 – Archbishop of Vilnius

* Francisco Javier Errázuriz Ossa (Chile) – born 5 September 1933 – Archbishop Emeritus of Santiago de Chile

* Julio Terrazas Sandoval (Bolivia) – born 7 March 1936 – Archbishop of Santa Cruz de la Sierra

* Wilfrid Fox Napier (South Africa) – born 8 March 1941 – Archbishop of Durban

* Oscar Andrés Rodríguez Maradiaga; SDB (Honduras) – born 29 December 1942 – Archbishop of Tegucigalpa

* Juan Luis Cipriani Thorne (Peru) – born 28 December 1943 – Archbishop of Lima

* Cláudio Hummes (Brazil) – born 8 August 1934 – Prefect Emeritus of the Congregation for the Clergy

* Jorge Mario Bergoglio; SJ (Argentina) – born 17 December 1936 – Archbishop of Buenos Aires

* José IV Policarpo (Portugal) – born 26 February 1936 – Patriarch of Lisbon

* Severino Poletto (Italy) – born 18 March 1933 – Archbishop Emeritus of Turin

* Karl Lehmann (Germany) – born 16 May 1936 – Bishop of Mainz

* Angelo Scola (Italy) – born 7 November 1941 – Archbishop of Milan

* Anthony Olubumni Okogie (Nigeria) – born 16 June 1936 – Archbishop Emeritus of Lagos

* Gabriel Zubeir Wako (Sudan) – born 27 February 1939 – Archbishop of Khartoum

* Carlos Amigo Vallejo (Spain) – born 23 August 1934 – Archbishop Emeritus of Seville

* Justin Francis Rigali (United States) – born 19 April 1935 – Archbishop Emeritus of Philadelphia

* Keith Michael Patrick O’Brien (Scotland) – born 17 March 1938 – Archbishop of Saint Andrews and Edinburgh

* Ennio Antonelli (Italy) – born 18 November 1936 – President Emeritus of the Pontifical Council for the Family

* Peter Kodwo Appiah Turkson (Ghana) – born 11 October 1948 – President of the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace

* Telesphore Placidus Toppo (India) – born 13 October 1939 – Archbishop of Ranchi

* George Pell (Australia) – born 8 April 1941 – Archbishop of Sydney

* Josip Bozanić (Croatia) – born 20 March 1949 – Archbishop of Zagreb

* Jean-Baptiste Phạm Minh Mẫn (Vietnam) – born 5 March 1934[9] – Archbishop of Ho Chi Minh City

* Philippe Barbarin (France) – born 17 October 1950 – Archbishop of Lyon

* Péter Erdő (Hungary) – born 25 June 1952 – Archbishop of Esztergom-Budapest

* Marc Ouellet (Canada) – born 8 June 1944 – Prefect of the Congregation for Bishops

* Agostino Vallini (Italy) – born 17 April 1940 – Vicar General for the Diocese of Rome

* Jorge Urosa (Venezuela) – born 28 August 1942 – Archbishop of Caracas

* Jean-Pierre Ricard (France) – born 25 September 1944 – Archbishop of Bordeaux

* Antonio Cañizares Llovera (Spain) – born 15 October 1945 – Prefect of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments

* Seán Patrick O’Malley (United States) – born 29 June 1944 – Archbishop of Boston

* Stanisław Dziwisz (Poland) – born 27 April 1939 – Archbishop of Kraków

* Carlo Caffarra (Italy) – born 1 June 1938 – Archbishop of Bologna

* Seán Brady (Ireland) – born 16 August 1939 – Archbishop of Armagh

* Lluís Martínez Sistach (Spain) – born 29 April 1937 – Archbishop of Barcelona

* André Armand Vingt-Trois (France) – born 7 November 1942 – Archbishop of Paris

* Angelo Bagnasco (Italy) – born 14 January 1943 – Archbishop of Genoa

* Théodore-Adrien Sarr (Senegal) – born 28 November 1936 – Archbishop of Dakar

* Oswald Gracias (India) – born 24 December 1944 – Archbishop of Bombay

* Francisco Robles Ortega (Mexico) – born 2 March 1949 – Archbishop of Guadalajara

* Daniel DiNardo (United States) – born 23 May 1949 – Archbishop of Galveston-Houston

* Odilo Pedro Scherer (Brazil) – born 21 September 1949 – Archbishop of São Paulo

* John Njue (Kenya) – born 1944 – Archbishop of Nairobi

* Raúl Eduardo Vela Chiriboga (Ecuador) – born 1 January 1934 – Archbishop Emeritus of Quito

* Laurent Monsengwo Pasinya (Democratic Republic of the Congo) – born 7 October 1939 – Archbishop of Kinshasa

* Paolo Romeo (Italy) – born 20 February 1938 – Archbishop of Palermo

* Donald William Wuerl (United States) – born 12 November 1940 – Archbishop of Washington

* Raymundo Damasceno Assis (Brazil) – born 15 February 1937 – Archbishop of Aparecida

* Kazimierz Nycz (Poland) – born 1 February 1950 – Archbishop of Warsaw

* Patabendige Don Albert Malcolm Ranjith (Sri Lanka) – born 15 November 1947 – Archbishop of Colombo

* Reinhard Marx (Germany) – born 21 September 1953 – Archbishop of Munich and Freising

* George Alencherry (India) – born 19 April 1945 – Major Archbishop of Ernakulam-Angamaly (Syro-Malabar Catholic Church)

* Thomas Christopher Collins (Canada) – born 16 January 1947 – Archbishop of Toronto

* Dominik Duka; OP (Czech Republic) – born 26 April 1943 – Archbishop of Prague

* Willem Jacobus Eijk (Netherlands) – born 22 June 1953 – Archbishop of Utrecht

* Giuseppe Betori (Italy) – born 25 February 1947 – Archbishop of Florence

* Timothy M. Dolan (United States) – born 6 February 1950 – Archbishop of New York

* Rainer Maria Woelki (Germany) – born 18 August 1956 – Archbishop of Berlin

* John Tong Hon (Hong Kong) – born 31 July 1939 – Bishop of Hong Kong

* Baselios Cleemis (India) – born 15 June 1959 – Major Archbishop of Trivandrum (Syro-Malankara Catholic Church)

* John Onaiyekan (Nigeria) – born 29 January 1944 – Archbishop of Abuja

* Rubén Salazar Gómez (Colombia) – born 22 September 1942 – Archbishop of Bogotá

* Luis Antonio Tagle (Philippines) – born 21 June 1957 – Archbishop of Manila

Cardinals of the Order of Deacons

* Jean-Louis Tauran (France) – born 3 April 1943 – President of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue, Cardinal Protodeacon since February 2011

* Attilio Nicora (Italy) – born 16 March 1937 – President of the Financial Information Authority

* William Joseph Levada (United States) – born 15 June 1936 – Prefect Emeritus of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith

* Franc Rodé (Slovenia) – born 23 September 1934 – Prefect Emeritus of the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life

* Leonardo Sandri (Argentina) – born 18 November 1943 – Prefect of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches

* Giovanni Lajolo (Italy) – born 3 January 1935 – President Emeritus of the Governorate of Vatican City State

* Paul Josef Cordes (Germany) – born 5 September 1934 – President Emeritus of the Pontifical Council Cor Unum

* Angelo Comastri (Italy) – born 17 September 1943 – Archpriest of St. Peter’s Basilica, Vicar General for the Vatican City State, and President of the Fabric of St. Peter

* Stanisław Ryłko (Poland) – born 4 July 1945 – President of the Pontifical Council for the Laity

* Raffaele Farina (Italy) – born 24 September 1933 – Librarian and Archivist Emeritus of the Holy Roman Church

* Angelo Amato (Italy) – born 8 June 1938 – Prefect of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints

* Robert Sarah (Guinea) – born 15 June 1945 – President of the Pontifical Council Cor Unum

* Francesco Monterisi (Italy) – born 28 May 1934 – Archpriest Emeritus of the Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls

* Raymond Leo Burke (United States) – born 30 June 1948 – Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura

* Kurt Koch (Switzerland) – born 15 March 1950 – President of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity

* Paolo Sardi (Italy) – born 1 September 1934 – Patron of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta

* Mauro Piacenza (Italy) – born 15 September 1944 – Prefect of the Congregation for the Clergy

* Velasio de Paolis (Italy) – born 19 September 1935 – President Emeritus of the Prefecture for the Economic Affairs of the Holy See

* Gianfranco Ravasi (Italy) – born 18 October 1942 – President of the Pontifical Council for Culture

* Fernando Filoni (Italy) – born 15 April 1946 – Prefect of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples

* Manuel Monteiro de Castro (Portugal) – born 29 March 1938 – Major Penitentiary

* Santos Abril y Castelló (Spain) – born 21 September 1935 – Archpriest of the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore

* Antonio Maria Vegliò (Italy) – born 3 February 1938 – President of the Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerants

* Giuseppe Bertello (Italy) – born 1 October 1942 – President of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State

* Francesco Coccopalmerio (Italy) – born 6 March 1938 – President of the Pontifical Council for Legislative Texts

* João Braz de Aviz (Brazil) – born 24 April 1947 – Prefect of the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life

* Edwin Frederick O’Brien (United States) – born 8 April 1939 – Grand Master of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem

* Domenico Calcagno (Italy) – born 3 February 1943 – President of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See

* Giuseppe Versaldi (Italy) – born 30 July 1943 – President of the Prefecture for the Economic Affairs of the Holy See

* James Michael Harvey (United States) – born 20 October 1949 – Archpriest of the Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls

Chief News Editor: Sol Jose Vanzi

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